Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010   Commission file number 1-9700

 

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   94-3025021

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

  (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 

211 Main Street, San Francisco, CA 94105

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (415) 667-7000

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock - $.01 par value per share   New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes  ¨    No  x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

 

As of June 30, 2010, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $14.2 billion. For purposes of this information, the outstanding shares of Common Stock owned by directors and executive officers of the registrant, and certain investment companies managed by Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc. were deemed to be shares of the voting stock held by affiliates.

 

The number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of January 31, 2011, was 1,203,314,123.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates certain information contained in the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its annual meeting of stockholders, to be held May 17, 2011, by reference to that document.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Annual Report On Form 10-K

For Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Part I      
Item 1.    Business      1   
  

General Corporate Overview

     1   
  

Acquisitions and Divestiture

     1   
  

Business Strategy and Competitive Environment

     1   
  

Products and Services

     2   
  

Regulation

     5   
  

Sources of Net Revenues

     6   
  

Available Information

     6   

Item 1A.

   Risk Factors      6   

Item 1B.

   Unresolved Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Comments      12   

Item 2.

   Properties      12   

Item 3.

   Legal Proceedings      12   
Part II      
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      13   

Item 6.

   Selected Financial Data      15   

Item 7.

   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      16   
  

Overview

     16   
  

Current Market and Regulatory Environment

     18   
  

Results of Operations

     19   
  

Liquidity and Capital Resources

     29   
  

Risk Management

     34   
  

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

     39   
  

Critical Accounting Estimates

     40   
  

Forward-Looking Statements

     41   

Item 7A.

   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      43   

Item 8.

   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      45   

Item 9.

   Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      89   

Item 9A.

   Controls and Procedures      89   

Item 9B.

   Other Information      89   
Part III      
Item 10.    Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance      89   

Item 11.

   Executive Compensation      91   

Item 12.

   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      91   

Item 13.

   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      91   

Item 14.

   Principal Accountant Fees and Services      92   
Part IV      
Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule      92   
  

Exhibit Index

     92   
  

Signatures

     97   
  

Index to Financial Statement Schedule

     F-1   


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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business

 

General Corporate Overview

 

The Charles Schwab Corporation (CSC), headquartered in San Francisco, California, was incorporated in 1986 and engages, through its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the Company, and primarily located in San Francisco except as indicated), in securities brokerage, banking, asset management, and related financial services. At December 31, 2010, the Company had $1.57 trillion in client assets, 8.0 million active brokerage accounts(a), 1.5 million corporate retirement plan participants, and 690,000 banking accounts.

 

Significant business subsidiaries of CSC include:

 

   

Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (Schwab), which was incorporated in 1971, is a securities broker-dealer with 302 domestic branch offices in 45 states, as well as a branch in each of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and London, U.K., and serves clients in Hong Kong through one of CSC’s subsidiaries;

 

   

Charles Schwab Bank (Schwab Bank), which commenced operations in 2003, is a federal savings bank located in Reno, Nevada; and

 

   

Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc. (CSIM), which is the investment advisor for Schwab’s proprietary mutual funds, referred to as the Schwab Funds®.

 

The Company provides financial services to individuals and institutional clients through two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services. The Investor Services segment includes the Company’s retail brokerage and banking operations. The Institutional Services segment provides custodial, trading, and support services to independent investment advisors (IAs), as well as retirement plan, equity compensation plan, and other financial services to corporations and their employees. For financial information by segment for the three years ended December 31, 2010, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 24. Segment Information.”

 

As of December 31, 2010, the Company had full-time, part-time and temporary employees, and persons employed on a contract basis that represented the equivalent of about 12,800 full-time employees.

 

Acquisitions and Divestiture

 

On November 9, 2010, the Company completed its acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Windward Investment Management, Inc. (Windward), which was an investment advisory firm that managed diversified investment portfolios comprised primarily of exchange-traded fund securities.

 

In July 2007, the Company sold all of the outstanding stock of U.S. Trust Corporation (USTC, and with its subsidiaries collectively referred to as U.S. Trust). U.S. Trust was a subsidiary that provided wealth management services.

 

In March 2007, the Company acquired The 401(k) Company, which offers retirement plan services. The acquisition enhanced the Company’s ability to meet the needs of retirement plans of all sizes. The acquisition also provided the opportunity to capture rollover accounts from individuals participating in retirement plans served by The 401(k) Company and to cross-sell the Company’s other investment and banking services to plan participants.

 

Business Strategy and Competitive Environment

 

The Company’s purpose is to help everyone be financially fit. The Company’s strategy is to meet the financial services needs of individual investors, both directly and indirectly, through its two segments. To pursue its strategy, the Company focuses on: building client loyalty; innovating in ways that benefit clients; operating in a disciplined manner; and leveraging its strengths through shared core processes and technology platforms. The Company provides clients with a compelling combination of

 

 

(a) Accounts with balances or activity within the preceding eight months.

 

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personalized relationships, superior service, and great value, delivered through a blend of people and technology. People provide the client focus and personal touch that are essential in serving investors, while technology helps create services that are scalable and consistent. This combination helps the Company address a wide range of client needs – from tools and information for self-directed or active investors, to advice services, to retirement and equity-based incentive plans, to support services for independent IAs – while enabling each client to easily utilize some or all of these capabilities according to their unique circumstances.

 

The Company’s competition in serving individual investors includes a wide range of brokerage, wealth management, and asset management firms, as well as banks and trust companies. In serving these investors and competing for a growing percentage of the investable wealth in the U.S., the Company offers a multi-channel service delivery model, which includes branch, telephonic, and online capabilities. Under this model, the Company can offer personalized service at competitive prices while giving clients the choice of where, when, and how they do business with the Company. Schwab’s branches and regional telephone service centers are staffed with trained and experienced financial consultants (FCs) focused on building and sustaining client relationships. The Company offers the ability to meet client investing needs through a single ongoing point of contact, even as those needs change over time. In particular, management believes that the Company’s ability to provide those clients seeking help, guidance, or advice with an integrated, individually tailored solution – ranging from occasional consultations to an ongoing relationship with a Schwab FC or an IA – is a competitive strength compared to the more fragmented offerings of other firms.

 

The Company’s online and telephonic channels provide quick and efficient access to an extensive array of information, research, tools, trade execution, and administrative services, which clients can access according to their needs. For example, as clients trade more actively, they can use these channels to access highly competitive pricing, expert tools, and extensive service capabilities – including experienced, knowledgeable teams of trading specialists and integrated product offerings.

 

Individuals investing for retirement through 401(k) plans can take advantage of the Company’s bundled offering of multiple investment choices, education, and third-party advice. Management also believes the Company is able to compete with the wide variety of financial services firms striving to attract individual client relationships by complementing these capabilities with the extensive array of investment, banking, and lending products and services described in the following section.

 

In the IA arena, the Company competes with institutional custodians, traditional and discount brokers, banks, and trust companies. Management believes that its Institutional Services segment can maintain its market leadership position primarily through the efforts of its expanded sales and support teams, which are dedicated to helping IAs grow, compete, and succeed in serving their clients. In addition to focusing on superior service, Institutional Services competes by utilizing technology to provide IAs with a highly-developed, scalable platform for administering their clients’ assets easily and efficiently. Institutional Services sponsors a variety of national, regional, and local events designed to help IAs identify and implement better ways to grow and manage their practices efficiently.

 

Another important aspect of the Company’s ability to compete is its ongoing focus on efficiency and productivity, as lower costs give the Company greater flexibility in its approach to pricing and investing for growth. Management believes that this flexibility remains important in light of the current competitive environment, in which a number of competitors offer reduced online trading commission rates and lower expense ratios on certain classes of mutual funds. Additionally, the Company’s nationwide marketing effort is an important competitive tool because it reinforces the attributes of the Schwab® brand.

 

Products and Services

 

The Company offers a broad range of products to address individuals’ varying investment and financial needs. Examples of these product offerings include:

 

   

Brokerage – an array of brokerage accounts including some with check-writing features, debit card, and billpay; individual retirement accounts; retirement plans for small to large businesses; 529 college savings accounts; designated brokerage accounts; equity incentive plan accounts; and margin loans, as well as access to fixed income securities, and equity and debt offerings;

 

   

Banking – checking accounts linked to brokerage accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, demand deposit accounts, first mortgages, home equity lines of credit (HELOCs), and pledged asset loans;

 

   

Trust – trust custody services, personal trust reporting services, and administrative trustee services;

 

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Advice – separately managed accounts, customized personal advice for tailored portfolios, and specialized planning and full-time portfolio management;

 

   

Mutual funds – third-party mutual funds through Mutual Fund Marketplace®, including no-load mutual funds through the Mutual Fund OneSource® service, proprietary mutual funds from two fund families – Schwab Funds® and Laudus Funds®, other third-party mutual funds, and mutual fund trading and clearing services to broker-dealers; and

 

   

Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) – third-party and proprietary ETFs, as well as separately managed portfolios of ETFs.

 

These products, and the Company’s full array of investing services, are made available through its two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services.

 

Investor Services

 

Through the Investor Services segment, the Company provides retail brokerage and banking services to individual investors.

 

The Company offers research, analytic tools, performance reports, market analysis, and educational material to all clients. Clients looking for more guidance have access to online portfolio planning tools, professional advice from Schwab’s portfolio consultants who can help develop an investment strategy and carry out investment and portfolio management decisions, as well as a range of fully delegated managed solutions that provide ongoing portfolio management.

 

Schwab strives to demystify investing by educating and assisting clients in the development of investment plans. Educational tools include workshops, interactive courses, and online information about investing. Additionally, Schwab provides various internet-based research and analysis tools that are designed to help clients achieve better investment outcomes. As an example of such tools, Schwab Equity Ratings® is a quantitative model-based stock rating system that provides all clients with ratings on approximately 3,000 stocks, assigning each equity a single grade: A, B, C, D, or F. Stocks are rated based on specific factors relating to fundamentals, valuation, momentum, and risk and ranked so that the number of ‘buy consideration’ ratings – As and Bs – equals the number of ‘sell consideration’ ratings – Ds and Fs.

 

Clients may need specific investment recommendations, either from time to time or on an ongoing basis. The Company provides clients seeking advice with customized solutions. The Company’s approach to advice is based on long-term investment strategies and guidance on portfolio diversification and asset allocation. This approach is designed to be offered consistently across all of Schwab’s delivery channels.

 

Schwab Private ClientTM features a personal advice relationship with a designated portfolio consultant, supported by a team of investment professionals who provide individualized service, a customized investment strategy developed in collaboration with the client, and ongoing guidance and execution.

 

For clients seeking a relationship in which investment decisions are fully delegated to a financial professional, the Company offers several alternatives. The Company provides investors access to professional investment management in a diversified account that is invested exclusively in either mutual funds or ETFs through the Schwab Managed PortfolioTM program. The Company also refers investors who want to utilize a specific third-party money manager to direct a portion of their investment assets to the Schwab Managed Account program. In addition, clients who want the assistance of an independent professional in managing their financial affairs may be referred to IAs in the Schwab Advisor Network®. These IAs provide personalized portfolio management, financial planning, and wealth management solutions.

 

The Company strives to deliver information, education, technology, service, and pricing that meet the specific needs of clients who trade actively. Schwab offers integrated Web- and software-based trading platforms, which incorporate intelligent order routing technology, real-time market data, options trading, premium stock research, and multi-channel access, as well as sophisticated account and trade management features, risk management tools, decision support tools, and dedicated personal support.

 

The Company serves both foreign investors and non-English-speaking U.S. clients who wish to trade or invest in U.S. dollar-based securities. The Company has a physical presence in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. In the U.S., the Company serves Chinese-, Portuguese-, Spanish-, and Vietnamese-speaking clients through a combination of its branch offices and Web-based and telephonic services.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Institutional Services

 

Through the Institutional Services segment, Schwab provides custodial, trading, technology, practice management, trust asset, and other support services to IAs. To attract and serve IAs, Institutional Services has a dedicated sales force and service teams assigned to meet their needs.

 

IAs who custody client accounts at Schwab may use proprietary software that provides them with up-to-date client account information, as well as trading capabilities. The Institutional Services website is the core platform for IAs to conduct daily business activities online with Schwab, including submitting client account information and retrieving news and market information. This platform provides IAs with a comprehensive suite of electronic and paper-based reporting capabilities. Institutional Services offers online cashiering services, as well as internet-based eDocuments sites for both IAs and their clients that provide multi-year archiving of online statements, trade confirms and tax reports, along with document search capabilities.

 

To help IAs grow and manage their practices, Institutional Services offers a variety of services, including marketing and business development, business strategy and planning, and transition support. Regulatory compliance consulting and support services are available, as well as website design and development capabilities. Institutional Services maintains a website that provides interactive tools, educational content, and research reports to assist advisors thinking about establishing their own independent practices.

 

Institutional Services offers an array of services to help advisors establish their own independent practices through the Business Start-up Solutions package. This includes access to dedicated service teams and outsourcing of back-office operations, as well as third-party firms who provide assistance with real estate, errors and omissions insurance, and company benefits.

 

The Company offers a variety of educational materials and events to IAs seeking to expand their knowledge of industry issues and trends, as well as sharpen their individual expertise and practice management skills. Institutional Services updates and shares market research on an ongoing basis, and it holds a series of events and conferences every year to discuss topics of interest to IAs, including business strategies and best practices. The Company sponsors the annual IMPACT® conference, which provides a national forum for the Company, IAs, and other industry participants to gather and share information and insights.

 

IAs and their clients have access to a broad range of the Company’s products and services, including managed accounts and cash products.

 

The Institutional Services segment also provides retirement plan recordkeeping and related services, retirement plan trust and custody services, stock plan services, and mutual fund clearing services, and supports the availability of Schwab proprietary investment funds on third-party platforms. The Company serves a range of employer sponsored plans: equity compensation plans, defined contribution plans, defined benefit plans, nonqualified deferred compensation plans and other employee benefit plans.

 

The Company’s bundled 401(k) retirement plan product offers plan sponsors a wide array of investment options, trustee or custodial services, and participant-level recordkeeping. Plan design features, which increase plan efficiency and achieve employer goals, are also offered, such as automatic enrollment, automatic fund mapping at conversion, and automatic contribution increases. Services also include support for Roth 401(k) accounts and profit sharing and defined benefit plans. The Company provides a robust suite of tools to plan sponsors to manage their plans, including plan-specific reports, studies and research, access to legislative updates and benchmarking reports that provide perspective on their plan’s features compared with overall industry and segment-specific plans. Participants in bundled plans serviced by the Company receive targeted education materials, have access to electronic tools and resources, may attend onsite and virtual seminars, and can receive third-party advice delivered by Schwab. This third-party advice service is delivered online, by phone, or in person, including recommendations based on the core investment fund choices in their retirement plan and specific recommended savings rates.

 

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Through the Retirement Business Services unit, the Company and independent retirement plan providers work together to serve plan sponsors, combining the consulting and administrative expertise of the administrator with the Company’s investment, technology, trust, and custodial services. Retirement Business Services also offers the Schwab Personal Choice Retirement Account®, a self-directed brokerage offering for retirement plans.

 

The Company’s Corporate Brokerage Services unit provides specialty brokerage-related services to corporate clients through its Stock Plan Services and Designated Brokerage Services businesses. Stock Plan Services offers equity compensation plan sponsors full-service recordkeeping for stock plans: stock options, restricted stock, performance shares and stock appreciation rights. Specialized services for executive transactions and reporting, grant acceptance tracking and other services are offered to employers to meet the needs of administering the reporting and compliance aspects of an equity compensation plan. Designated Brokerage Services provides solutions for compliance departments of regulated companies and firms with special requirements to monitor employee personal trading. The Corporate Brokerage Services unit also provides mutual fund clearing services to banks, brokerage firms and trust companies and offers Schwab-generated Investment Solutions outside the Company to institutional channels.

 

Regulation

 

CSC is a savings and loan holding company and Schwab Bank, CSC’s depository institution subsidiary, is a federal savings bank. CSC and Schwab Bank are both currently subject to supervision and regulation by the Office of Thrift Supervision. However, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act legislation eliminates the Office of Thrift Supervision and transfers its functions to other federal banking agencies effective July 21, 2011, unless extended or delayed for up to an additional six months. As a result, the Federal Reserve will become CSC’s primary regulator and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency will become the primary regulator of Schwab Bank. As a savings and loan holding company, CSC is not subject to specific statutory capital requirements. However, CSC is required to maintain capital that is sufficient to support the holding company and its subsidiaries’ business activities, and the risks inherent in those activities.

 

Schwab Bank is subject to regulation and supervision and to various requirements and restrictions under federal and state laws, including regulatory capital guidelines. Among other things, these requirements govern transactions with CSC and its non-depository institution subsidiaries, including loans and other extensions of credit, investments or asset purchases, dividends, and investments. The federal banking agencies have broad powers to enforce these regulations, including the power to terminate deposit insurance, impose substantial fines and other civil and criminal penalties, and appoint a conservator or receiver. Schwab Bank is required to maintain minimum capital levels as specified in federal banking laws and regulations. Failure to meet the minimum levels will result in certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary, actions by the regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Schwab Bank.

 

The securities industry in the United States is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws. Schwab is registered as a broker-dealer with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the fifty states, and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Schwab and CSIM are registered as investment advisors with the SEC. Additionally, Schwab is regulated by the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) with respect to the futures and commodities trading activities it conducts as an introducing broker.

 

Much of the regulation of broker-dealers has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations (SROs), which in Schwab’s case includes the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA), the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB), NYSE Arca, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange. The primary regulators of Schwab are FINRA and, for municipal securities, the MSRB. The CFTC has designated the National Futures Association (NFA) as Schwab’s primary regulator for futures and commodities trading activities. The Company’s business is also subject to oversight by regulatory bodies in other countries in which the Company operates.

 

The principal purpose of regulating broker-dealers and investment advisors is the protection of clients and the securities markets. The regulations to which broker-dealers and investment advisors are subject cover all aspects of the securities business, including, among other things, sales and trading practices, publication of research, margin lending, uses and safekeeping of clients’ funds and securities, capital adequacy, recordkeeping and reporting, fee arrangements, disclosure to clients, fiduciary duties owed to advisory clients, and the conduct of directors, officers and employees.

 

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As a registered broker-dealer, Schwab is subject to Rule 15c3-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Uniform Net Capital Rule) and related SRO requirements. The CFTC and NFA also impose net capital requirements. The Uniform Net Capital Rule specifies minimum capital requirements that are intended to ensure the general financial soundness and liquidity of broker-dealers. Because CSC itself is not a registered broker-dealer, it is not subject to the Uniform Net Capital Rule. However, if Schwab failed to maintain specified levels of net capital, such failure would constitute a default by CSC under certain debt covenants.

 

The Uniform Net Capital Rule limits broker-dealers’ ability to transfer capital to parent companies and other affiliates. Compliance with the Uniform Net Capital Rule could limit Schwab’s operations and its ability to repay subordinated debt to CSC, which in turn could limit CSC’s ability to repay debt, pay cash dividends, and purchase shares of its outstanding stock.

 

Sources of Net Revenues

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. The Company generates asset management and administration fees through its proprietary and third-party mutual fund offerings, as well as fee-based investment management and advisory services. Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets (such as cash, short- and long-term investments, and mortgage and margin loans) and interest paid on funding sources (including banking deposits and client cash in brokerage accounts, short-term borrowings, and long-term debt). The Company generates trading revenue through commissions earned for executing trades for clients and principal transaction revenue from trading activity in fixed income securities.

 

For revenue information by source for the three years ended December 31, 2010, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Results of Operations – Net Revenues.”

 

Available Information

 

The Company files annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. The Company’s SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may read and copy any document that the Company files with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

 

On the Company’s Internet website, http://www.aboutschwab.com, the Company posts the following recent filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC: the Company’s annual reports on Form 10-K, the Company’s quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, the Company’s current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All such filings are available free of charge either on the Company’s website or by request via email (investor.relations@schwab.com), telephone (415-667-1959), or mail (Charles Schwab Investor Relations at 211 Main Street, San Francisco, CA 94105).

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

The Company faces a variety of risks that may affect its operations or financial results, and many of those risks are driven by factors that the Company cannot control or predict. The following discussion addresses those risks that management believes are the most significant, although there may be other risks that could arise, or may prove to be more significant than expected, that may affect the Company’s operations or financial results.

 

For a discussion of the Company’s risk management, including technology and operating risk, credit risk, concentration risk, market risk, fiduciary risk, and legal and regulatory risk, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Risk Management.”

 

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Developments in the business, economic, and geopolitical environment could negatively impact the Company’s business.

 

The Company’s business can be adversely affected by the general environment – economic, corporate, securities market, regulatory, and geopolitical developments all play a role in client asset valuations, trading activity, interest rates and overall investor engagement, and are outside of the Company’s control. Deterioration in the housing and credit markets, reductions in short-term interest rates, and decreases in securities valuations negatively impact the Company’s net interest revenue, asset management and administration fees, and capital resources.

 

A significant decrease in the Company’s liquidity could negatively affect the Company’s business and financial management as well as reduce client confidence in the Company.

 

Maintaining adequate liquidity is crucial to the business operations of the Company, including margin lending, mortgage lending, and transaction settlement, among other liquidity needs. The Company meets its liquidity needs primarily through cash generated by client activity and operating earnings, as well as cash provided by external financing. Fluctuations in client cash or deposit balances, as well as changes in market conditions, may affect the Company’s ability to meet its liquidity needs. A reduction in the Company’s liquidity position could reduce client confidence in the Company, which could result in the loss of client accounts. In addition, if the Company’s broker-dealer or depository institution subsidiaries fail to meet regulatory capital guidelines, regulators could limit the subsidiaries’ operations or their ability to upstream funds to CSC, which could reduce CSC’s liquidity and adversely affect its ability to repay debt and pay cash dividends. In addition, CSC may need to provide additional funding to such subsidiaries.

 

Factors which may adversely affect the Company’s liquidity position include a reduction in cash held in banking or brokerage client accounts, a dramatic increase in the Company’s client lending activities (including margin and personal lending), unanticipated outflows of company cash, increased capital requirements, other regulatory changes or a loss of market or customer confidence in the Company. Schwab may also experience temporary liquidity demands due to timing differences between clients’ transaction settlements and the availability of segregated cash balances.

 

When cash generated by client activity and operating earnings is not sufficient for the Company’s liquidity needs, the Company must seek external financing. During periods of disruptions in the credit and capital markets, potential sources of external financing could be reduced, and borrowing costs could increase. Although CSC and Schwab maintain committed and uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines and CSC has a commercial paper issuance program, as well as a universal shelf registration statement filed with the SEC, financing may not be available on acceptable terms or at all due to market conditions and disruptions in the credit markets. In addition, a significant downgrade in the Company’s credit ratings could increase its borrowing costs and limit its access to the capital markets.

 

The Company may suffer significant losses from its credit exposures.

 

The Company’s businesses are subject to the risk that a client, counterparty or issuer will fail to perform its contractual obligations, or that the value of collateral held to secure obligations will prove to be inadequate. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to manage this risk, the policies and procedures may not be fully effective. The Company’s exposure mainly results from margin lending activities, securities lending activities, mortgage lending activities, its role as a counterparty in financial contracts and investing activities, and indirectly from the investing activities of certain of the proprietary funds that the Company sponsors.

 

The Company has exposure to credit risk associated with its securities available for sale and securities held to maturity portfolios, which includes U.S. agency and non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities, consumer loan asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, and certificates of deposit among other investments. These instruments are also subject to price fluctuations as a result of changes in the financial market’s assessment of issuer credit quality, increases in the unemployment rate, delinquency and default rates, housing price declines, changes in prevailing interest rates and other economic factors.

 

Loss of value of securities available for sale and securities held to maturity can result in charges if management determines that the impairments are other than temporary. The evaluation of whether other-than-temporary impairment exists is a matter

 

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of judgment, which includes the assessment of several factors. See “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates.” If management determines that a security is other-than-temporarily impaired, the cost basis of the security may be adjusted and a corresponding loss may be recognized in current earnings. Certain securities available for sale experienced continued deteriorating credit characteristics in 2010, which resulted in impairment charges. Deterioration in the performance of securities available for sale and securities held to maturity could result in the recognition of future impairment charges.

 

The Company’s loans to banking clients primarily consist of first-lien mortgage loans and HELOCs. Increases in delinquency and default rates, housing price declines, increases in the unemployment rate, and other economic factors can result in charges for loan loss reserves and write downs on such loans.

 

Heightened credit exposures to specific counterparties or instruments (concentration risk) can increase the Company’s risk of loss. Examples of the Company’s credit concentration risk include:

 

   

large positions in financial instruments collateralized by assets with similar economic characteristics or in securities of a single issuer or industry;

 

   

mortgage loans and HELOCs to banking clients which are secured by properties in the same geographic region; and

 

   

margin and securities lending activities collateralized by securities of a single issuer or industry.

 

The Company may also be subject to concentration risk when lending to a particular counterparty, borrower or issuer.

 

The Company sponsors a number of proprietary money market mutual funds and other proprietary funds. Although the Company has no obligation to do so, the Company may decide for competitive reasons to provide credit, liquidity or other support to its funds in the event of significant declines in valuation of fund holdings or significant redemption activity that exceeds available liquidity. Such support could cause the Company to take significant charges and could reduce the Company’s liquidity. If the Company chose not to provide credit, liquidity or other support in such a situation, the Company could suffer reputational damage and its business could be adversely affected.

 

Significant interest rate changes could affect the Company’s profitability and financial condition.

 

The Company is exposed to interest rate risk primarily from changes in the interest rates on its interest-earning assets (such as cash equivalents, short- and long-term investments, and mortgage and margin loans) relative to changes in the costs of its funding sources (including deposits in banking and brokerage accounts, short-term borrowings, and long-term debt). Changes in interest rates generally affect the interest earned on interest-earning assets differently than the interest the Company pays on its interest-bearing liabilities. In addition, certain funding sources do not bear interest and their cost therefore does not vary. Overall, the Company is positioned to benefit from a rising interest rate environment; the Company could be adversely affected by a decline in interest rates if the rates that the Company earns on interest-earning assets decline more than the rates that the Company pays on its funding sources, or if prepayment rates increase on the mortgages and mortgage-backed securities that the Company holds. With the low interest rate environment, the Company’s revenue from interest-earning assets has been declining more than the rates that the Company pays on its funding sources. The Company may also be limited in the amount it can reduce interest rates on deposit accounts and still offer a competitive return.

 

To the extent the overall yield on certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds falls to a level at or below the management fees on those funds, the Company may waive a portion of its fee in order to continue providing some return to clients. As a result of the low interest rate environment, the Company has been waiving and may continue to waive a portion of its management fees for certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds. Such fee waivers negatively impact the Company’s asset management and administration fees.

 

The Company is subject to litigation and regulatory investigations and proceedings and may not always be successful in defending itself against such claims or proceedings.

 

The financial services industry faces substantial litigation and regulatory risks. The Company is subject to arbitration claims and lawsuits in the ordinary course of its business, as well as class actions and other significant litigation. The Company is also the subject of inquiries, investigations, and proceedings by regulatory and other governmental agencies. Actions brought against the Company may result in settlements, awards, injunctions, fines, penalties or other results adverse to the Company

 

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including reputational harm. Even if the Company is successful in defending against these actions, the defense of such matters may result in the Company incurring significant expenses. Predicting the outcome of matters is inherently difficult, particularly where claims are brought on behalf of various classes of claimants, claimants seek substantial or unspecified damages, or when investigations or legal proceedings are at an early stage. A substantial judgment, settlement, fine, or penalty could be material to the Company’s operating results or cash flows for a particular future period, depending on the Company’s results for that period. In market downturns, the volume of legal claims and amount of damages sought in litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial services companies have historically increased. See “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Note to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.”

 

From time to time, the Company is subject to litigation claims from third parties alleging infringement of their intellectual property rights (e.g., patents). Such litigation can require the expenditure of significant Company resources. If the Company was found to have infringed a third-party patent, or other intellectual property rights, it could incur substantial liability, and in some circumstances could be enjoined from using certain technology, or providing certain products or services.

 

Extensive regulation of the Company’s businesses limits the Company’s activities and may subject it to significant penalties.

 

As a participant in the securities, banking and financial services industries, the Company is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws by governmental agencies, supervisory authorities, and SROs. Such regulation is expected to become more extensive and complex in response to the recent market disruptions. The requirements imposed by the Company’s regulators are designed to ensure the integrity of the financial markets, the safety and soundness of financial institutions, and the protection of clients. These regulations often serve to limit the Company’s activities by way of capital, customer protection and market conduct requirements, and restrictions on the businesses activities that the Company may conduct. Despite the Company’s efforts to comply with applicable regulations, there are a number of risks, particularly in areas where applicable regulations may be unclear or where regulators revise their previous guidance. Any enforcement actions or other proceedings brought by the Company’s regulators against the Company or its affiliates, officers or employees could result in fines, penalties, cease and desist orders, enforcement actions, suspension or expulsion, or other disciplinary sanctions, including limitations on the Company’s business activities, any of which could harm the Company’s reputation and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

Legislation or changes in rules and regulations could negatively impact the Company’s business and financial results.

 

New legislation, rule changes, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing federal, state and SRO rules and regulations may directly affect the operation and profitability of the Company or its specific business lines. The profitability of the Company could also be affected by rules and regulations which impact the business and financial communities generally, including changes to the laws governing taxation, electronic commerce, client privacy and security of client data. In addition, the rules and regulations could result in limitations on the lines of business the Company conducts, modifications to the Company’s business practices, increased capital requirements, or additional costs.

 

Financial reforms and related regulations may affect the Company’s business activities, financial position and profitability.

 

The “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act” was signed into law in July 2010. This legislation makes extensive changes to the laws regulating financial services firms and requires significant rule-making. In addition, the legislation mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislative or regulatory action. CSC continues to review the impact that the legislation, studies and related rule-making will have on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

The legislation charges the Federal Reserve with drafting enhanced regulatory requirements for “systemically important” bank holding companies and certain other non-bank financial institutions designated as “systemically important” by the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which may include CSC. The enhanced requirements include more stringent capital, leverage and liquidity standards. The legislation permits the Federal Reserve to tailor its enhanced requirements to the perceived risk profile of an individual financial institution. Among other things, the legislation authorizes various assessments and fees, requires the

 

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establishment of minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements for insured depository institutions, and requires the SEC to complete studies and develop rules regarding various investor protection issues.

 

The legislation also establishes a new independent Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which will have broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority over consumer products, including mortgages, home-equity loans and credit cards. States will be permitted to adopt stricter consumer protection laws and state attorney generals can enforce consumer protection rules issued by the Bureau.

 

The legislation gives the SEC discretion to adopt rules regarding standards of conduct for broker-dealers providing investment advice to retail customers. The various studies required by the legislation could result in additional rulemaking or legislative action, which could impact our business and financial results.

 

The changes resulting from the legislation may impact the profitability of the Company’s business activities, require changes to certain of its business practices, impose upon the Company more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage ratio requirements or otherwise adversely affect the Company’s business. These changes may also require the Company to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes.

 

The Company’s industry is characterized by aggressive price competition.

 

The Company continually monitors its pricing in relation to competitors and periodically adjusts trade commission rates, interest rates on deposits and loans, fees for advisory services, and other fee structures to enhance its competitive position. Increased price competition from other financial services firms, such as reduced commissions to attract trading volume or higher deposit rates to attract client cash balances, could impact the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

The industry in which the Company competes has undergone a period of consolidation.

 

The Company faces intense competition for the clients that it serves and the products and services it offers. There has been significant consolidation as financial institutions with which the Company competes have been acquired by or merged into or acquired other firms. This consolidation may continue. Competition is based on many factors, including the range of products and services offered, pricing, customer service, brand recognition, reputation, and perceived financial strength. Consolidations may enable other firms to offer a broader range of products and services than the Company does, or offer such products at more competitive prices.

 

The Company faces competition in hiring and retaining qualified employees, especially for employees who are key to the Company’s ability to build and enhance client relationships.

 

The market for quality professionals and other personnel in the Company’s business is highly competitive. Competition is particularly strong for financial consultants who build and sustain the Company’s client relationships. The Company’s ability to continue to compete effectively will depend upon its ability to attract new employees and retain existing employees while managing compensation costs.

 

Technology and operational failures could subject the Company to losses, litigation, and regulatory actions.

 

The Company faces technology and operating risk which is the potential for loss due to deficiencies in control processes or technology systems of the Company, its vendors or its outsourced service providers that constrain the Company’s ability to gather, process, and communicate information and process client transactions efficiently and securely, without interruptions. This risk also includes the risk of human error, employee misconduct, external fraud, computer viruses, distributed denial of service attacks, terrorist attacks, and natural disaster. It could take several hours or more to restore full functionality in the event of an unforeseen event which could affect the Company’s ability to process and settle client transactions. Extraordinary trading volumes could cause the Company’s computer systems to operate at an unacceptably slow speed or even fail. The Company’s business and operations could be negatively impacted by any significant technology and operational failures. Moreover, instances of fraud or other misconduct, including improper use or disclosure of confidential client, employee, or company information, might also negatively impact the Company’s reputation and client confidence in the Company, in addition to any direct losses that might result from such instances. Despite the Company’s efforts to identify areas of risk,

 

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oversee operational areas involving risk, and implement policies and procedures designed to manage risk, there can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer unexpected losses, reputational damage or regulatory action due to technology or other operational failures, including those of its vendors.

 

The Company also faces risk related to its security guarantee which covers client losses from unauthorized account activity, such as those caused by external fraud involving the compromise of clients’ login and password information. Losses reimbursed under the guarantee could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.

 

The Company relies on outsourced service providers to perform key functions.

 

The Company relies on external service providers to perform certain key technology, processing, servicing, and support functions. These service providers also face technology and operating risk and any significant failures by them, including the improper use or disclosure of the Company’s confidential client, employee, or company information, could cause the Company to incur losses and could harm the Company’s reputation. An interruption in or the cessation of service by any external service provider as a result of systems failures, capacity constraints, financial difficulties or for any other reason, and the Company’s inability to make alternative arrangements in a timely manner could disrupt the Company’s operations. Switching to an alternative service provider may require a transition period and result in less efficient operations.

 

Potential strategic transactions could have a negative impact on the Company’s financial position.

 

The Company evaluates potential strategic transactions, including business combinations, acquisitions, and dispositions. Any such transaction could have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. The process of evaluating, negotiating, and effecting any such strategic transaction may divert management’s attention from other business concerns, and might cause the loss of key clients, employees, and business partners. Moreover, integrating businesses and systems may result in unforeseen expenditures as well as numerous risks and uncertainties, including the need to integrate operational, financial, and management information systems and management controls, integrate relationships with clients and business partners, and manage facilities and employees in different geographic areas. In addition, an acquisition may cause the Company to assume liabilities or become subject to litigation. Further, the Company may not realize the anticipated benefits from an acquisition, and any future acquisition could be dilutive to the Company’s current stockholders’ percentage ownership or to earnings per share (EPS).

 

The Company’s acquisitions and dispositions are typically subject to closing conditions, including regulatory approvals and the absence of material adverse changes in the business, operations or financial condition of the entity being acquired or sold. To the extent the Company enters into an agreement to buy or sell an entity, there can be no guarantee that the transaction will close when expected, or at all. If a material transaction does not close, the Company’s stock price could decline.

 

The Company’s stock price has fluctuated historically, and may continue to fluctuate.

 

The Company’s stock price can be volatile. Among the factors that may affect the volatility of the Company’s stock price are the following:

 

   

speculation in the investment community or the press about, or actual changes in, the Company’s competitive position, organizational structure, executive team, operations, financial condition, financial reporting and results, effectiveness of cost reduction initiatives, or strategic transactions;

 

   

the announcement of new products, services, acquisitions, or dispositions by the Company or its competitors;

 

   

increases or decreases in revenue or earnings, changes in earnings estimates by the investment community, and variations between estimated financial results and actual financial results.

 

Changes in the stock market generally or as it concerns the Company’s industry, as well as geopolitical, economic, and business factors unrelated to the Company, may also affect the Company’s stock price.

 

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Future sales of CSC’s equity securities may adversely affect the market price of CSC’s common stock and result in dilution.

 

CSC’s certificate of incorporation authorizes CSC’s Board of Directors to, among other things, issue additional shares of common or preferred stock or securities convertible or exchangeable into equity securities, without stockholder approval. CSC may issue additional equity or convertible securities to raise additional capital or for other purposes. The issuance of any additional equity or convertible securities could be substantially dilutive to holders of CSC’s common stock and may adversely affect the market price of CSC’s common stock.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

A summary of the Company’s significant locations at December 31, 2010, is presented in the following table. Locations are leased or owned as noted below. The square footage amounts are presented net of space that has been subleased to third parties.

 

     Square Footage  
(amounts in thousands)        Leased              Owned      

Location    

     

Corporate office space:

     

San Francisco, CA (1)

     778           

Service centers:

     

Phoenix, AZ (2)

     47         709   

Denver, CO

     383           

Indianapolis, IN

             274   

Austin, TX

     190           

Orlando, FL

     168           

Richfield, OH

             117   

 

(1)

Includes the Company’s headquarters.

 

(2)

Includes two data centers.

 

Substantially all of the Company’s branch offices are located in leased premises. The corporate headquarters, data centers, offices, and service centers generally support all of the Company’s segments.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

For a discussion of legal proceedings, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.”

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

CSC’s common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol SCHW. The number of common stockholders of record as of January 31, 2011, was 8,276. The closing market price per share on that date was $18.05.

 

The quarterly high and low sales prices for CSC’s common stock and the other information required to be furnished pursuant to this item are included in “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 27. Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited) and 19. Employee Incentive, Deferred Compensation, and Retirement Plans.”

 

The following graph shows a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns for CSC’s common stock, the Dow Jones U.S. Investment Services Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, each of which assumes an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of dividends.

 

LOGO

 

December 31,

   2005      2006      2007      2008      2009      2010  

The Charles Schwab Corporation

   $     100       $     133       $     186       $     119       $     141       $     130   

Dow Jones U.S. Investment Services Index

   $     100       $     135       $     122       $ 40       $ 64       $ 66   

Standard & Poor’s 500 Index

   $     100       $     116       $     122       $ 77       $ 97       $     112   

 

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

The following table summarizes purchases made by or on behalf of CSC of its common stock for each calendar month in the fourth quarter of 2010:

 

Month

   Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
    (in thousands)     
             Average        
Price Paid
per Share
     Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced
Program (1)
     (in thousands)    
     Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet be Purchased
under the Program 
(in millions)
 

October:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     4       $ 14.12         N/A         N/A   

November:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     490       $ 15.42         N/A         N/A   

December:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     3       $ 16.20         N/A         N/A   
                                   

Total:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $     596   

Employee transactions (2)

     497       $     15.41         N/A         N/A   
                                   

 

N/A Not applicable.

 

(1)

There were no share repurchases under the Share Repurchase Program during the fourth quarter. Repurchases under this program are under authorizations by CSC’s Board of Directors covering up to $500 million and $500 million of common stock publicly announced by the Company on April 25, 2007, and March 13, 2008, respectively. The remaining authorizations do not have an expiration date.

 

(2)

Includes restricted shares withheld (under the terms of grants under employee stock incentive plans) to offset tax withholding obligations that occur upon vesting and release of restricted shares. The Company may receive shares to pay the exercise price and/or to satisfy tax withholding obligations by employees who exercise stock options (granted under employee stock incentive plans), which are commonly referred to as stock swap exercises.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

In connection with the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Windward on November 9, 2010, CSC issued 4,789,875 and 2,052,803 shares of its common stock to Windward and the Stephen J. Cucchiaro 2001 Revocable Trust, respectively. The issuance of the shares was exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to Section 4(2) as a transaction not involving any public offering.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 

Selected Financial and Operating Data

 

(In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts, Ratios, or as Noted)

 

    Growth Rates                                
    Compounded     Annual                                
    4-Year
2006-2010
    1-Year
2009-2010
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  

Results of Operations

             

Net revenues

           1   $     4,248      $     4,193      $     5,150      $     4,994      $     4,309   

Expenses excluding interest

    5     19   $ 3,469      $ 2,917      $ 3,122      $ 3,141      $ 2,833   

Income from continuing operations

    (16 %)      (42 %)    $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,230      $ 1,120      $ 891   

Net income (1)

    (22 %)      (42 %)    $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212      $ 2,407      $ 1,227   

Income from continuing operations per share — basic

    (14 %)      (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.07      $ .93      $ .70   

Income from continuing operations per share — diluted

    (14 %)      (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06      $ .92      $ .69   

Basic earnings per share (1, 2)

    (21 %)      (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06      $ 1.98      $ .96   

Diluted earnings per share (1, 2)

    (20 %)      (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.05      $ 1.96      $ .95   

Dividends declared per common share

    15          $ .240      $ .240      $ .220      $ .200      $ .135   

Special dividend declared per common share

    N/M             $      $      $      $ 1.00      $   

Weighted-average common shares outstanding — diluted

    (2 %)      3     1,194        1,160        1,157        1,222        1,286   

Asset management and administration fees as a percentage of net revenues

        43     45     46     47     45

Net interest revenue as a percentage of net revenues

        36     30     33     33     33

Trading revenue as a percentage of net revenues (3)

        20     24     21     17     18

Effective income tax rate on income from continuing operations

        41.7     38.3     39.3     39.6     39.6

Capital expenditures — purchases of equipment, office facilities, and property, net (4)

    21     (9 %)    $ 127      $ 139      $ 194      $ 168      $ 59   

Capital expenditures, net, as a percentage of net revenues

        3     3     4     3     1

Performance Measures

             

Net revenue growth (decline)

        1     (19 %)      3     16     19

Pre-tax profit margin from continuing operations

        18.3     30.4     39.4     37.1     34.3

Return on stockholders’ equity

        8     17     31     55     26

Financial Condition (at year end)

             

Total assets

    17     23   $ 92,568      $ 75,431      $ 51,675      $ 42,286      $ 48,992   

Long-term debt

    51     33   $ 2,006      $ 1,512      $ 883      $ 899      $ 388   

Stockholders’ equity

    6     23   $ 6,226      $ 5,073      $ 4,061      $ 3,732      $ 5,008   

Assets to stockholders’ equity ratio

        15        15        13        11        10   

Long-term debt to total financial capital (long-term debt plus stockholders’ equity)

        24     23     18     19     7

Employee Information

             

Full-time equivalent employees (at year end, in thousands)

    1     3     12.8        12.4        13.4        13.3        12.4   

Net revenues per average full-time equivalent employee (in thousands)

    (2 %)           $ 337      $ 338      $ 383      $ 387      $ 362   

 

Note: All information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is presented on a continuing operations basis unless otherwise noted.

(1)

Net income in 2007 includes a gain of $1.2 billion, after tax, on the sale of U.S. Trust.

(2)

Both basic and diluted earnings per share in 2008, 2007, and 2006 include discontinued operations.

(3)

Trading revenue includes commission and principal transaction revenues.

(4)

Capital expenditures in 2006 are presented net of proceeds of $63 million primarily from the sale of a data center.

N/M Not meaningful.

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

OVERVIEW

 

Management of the Company focuses on several key financial and non-financial metrics in evaluating the Company’s financial position and operating performance. All information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is presented on a continuing operations basis unless otherwise noted. Summarized results for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008 are shown in the following table:

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth  Rate
1-Year

2009-2010
    2010     2009     2008  

Client Activity Metrics:

        

Net new client assets (1) (in billions)

     (70 %)    $ 26.6      $ 87.3      $ 113.4   

Client assets (in billions, at year end)

     11   $     1,574.5      $     1,422.6      $     1,137.0   

Clients’ daily average trades (2) (in thousands)

     (4 %)      399.7        414.8        432.1   

Company Financial Metrics:

        

Net revenues

     1   $ 4,248      $ 4,193      $ 5,150   

Expenses excluding interest

     19     3,469        2,917        3,122   
                                

Income from continuing operations before taxes on income

     (39 %)      779        1,276        2,028   

Taxes on income

     (34 %)      (325     (489     (798
                                

Income from continuing operations

     (42 %)      454        787        1,230   

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

                          (18
                                

Net income

     (42 %)    $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   
                                

Earnings per share from continuing operations – diluted

     (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06   

Earnings per share diluted

     (44 %)    $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.05   

Net revenue growth (decline) from prior year

       1     (19 %)      3

Pre-tax profit margin from continuing operations

       18.3     30.4     39.4

Return on stockholders’ equity

       8     17     31

Net revenue per average full-time equivalent employee (in thousands)

          $ 337      $ 338      $ 383   

 

 

(1)

Includes net outflows of $51.5 billion in 2010 related to the planned deconversion of a mutual fund clearing services client.

(2)

Beginning in 2010, amounts include all commission-free trades, including the Company’s Mutual Fund OneSource® funds and ETFs, and other proprietary products. Prior period amounts have been recast to reflect this change.

 

   

Net new client assets is defined as the total inflows of client cash and securities to the firm less client outflows. Management believes that this metric depicts how well the Company’s products and services appeal to new and existing clients in a given operating environment.

 

   

Client assets is the market value of all client assets housed at the Company. Management considers client assets to be indicative of the Company’s appeal in the marketplace. Additionally, fluctuations in certain components of client assets (e.g., Mutual Fund OneSource funds) directly impact asset management and administration fees.

 

   

Clients’ daily average trades is an indicator of client engagement with securities markets and the most prominent driver of trading revenue.

 

   

Management believes that earnings per share, net revenue growth, pre-tax profit margin from continuing operations, and return on stockholders’ equity provide broad indicators of the Company’s overall financial health, operating efficiency, and ability to generate acceptable returns within the context of a given operating environment.

 

   

Net revenue per average full-time equivalent employee is considered by management to be the Company’s broadest measure of productivity.

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. The Company generates asset management and administration fees through its proprietary and third-party mutual fund offerings, as well as fee-based investment management and advisory services. Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on funding sources. Asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue are impacted by securities valuations, interest rates, the Company’s ability to attract new clients, and client activity levels. The Company generates trading revenue through commissions earned for executing trades for clients and principal transaction revenue from trading activity in fixed income securities. Trading revenue is impacted by trading volumes, the volatility of prices in the equity and fixed income markets, and commission rates.

 

2010 Compared to 2009

 

The equity markets improved during 2010 and remained well above their prior year lows. The Nasdaq Composite Index, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average increased 17%, 13%, and 11%, respectively. The three-month LIBOR increased by 5 basis points to .30% in 2010, however the low interest rate environment continued throughout the year as the federal funds target rate remained unchanged during the year at a range of zero to 0.25%.

 

The Company’s sustained investment in expanding and improving product and service capabilities for its clients was reflected in the strength of its key client activity metrics in 2010 – net new client assets totaled $78.1 billion, excluding outflows related to a single Mutual Fund Clearing client who completed a planned transfer to an internal platform during the year, and total client assets ended 2010 at a record $1.57 trillion, up 11% from 2009. Client trading activity slowed during the year as clients’ daily average trades decreased 4% from 2009 to 399,700.

 

Net revenues were relatively flat in 2010 from 2009. However, the Company experienced a change in the mix of its revenue sources as the increase in net interest revenue was offset by decreases in trading revenue, asset management and administration fees, and other revenue. Net interest revenue increased due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by a decrease in the average yield earned. Trading revenue decreased due to lower average revenue per revenue trade resulting from improved online trade pricing for clients, which was implemented in January 2010, and slightly lower daily average revenue trades in 2010. While the low interest rate environment caused over $200 million of additional money market mutual fund fee waivers from the prior year, the decrease in asset management and administration fees was limited to 3% due to higher average asset valuations and continued asset inflows. Other revenue was lower in comparison to 2009 due to a gain of $31 million on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt in 2009.

 

Expenses excluding interest increased by 19% in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to the recognition of certain significant charges in 2010. The Company recognized class action litigation and regulatory reserves and other costs totaling $320 million relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund®. Additionally, the Company decided to cover the net remaining losses recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds as a result of their investments in a single structured investment vehicle that defaulted in 2008 and recorded a charge of $132 million in 2010. Also, as a result of challenging credit card industry economics, the Company ended its sponsorship in its Invest First® and WorldPoints(a) Visa(b) credit cards and recorded a charge of $30 million. The Company’s ongoing expense discipline helped limit the growth in all other expense categories in the aggregate to 3% over the prior year.

 

2009 Compared to 2008

 

Economic and market conditions were challenging throughout 2009, marked by unprecedented market dynamics including declines in short-term interest rates and home valuations, increases in home foreclosures and delinquencies, and tight credit markets. While the federal funds target rate was unchanged at a range of zero to 0.25%, the three-month LIBOR decreased by 158 basis points to 0.25%. At the same time, although the equity markets showed sustained improvement from their March

 

 

(a)

WorldPoints is a registered trademark of FIA Card Services, N.A.

 

(b)

Visa is a registered trademark of Visa International Service Association.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

2009 lows – the Nasdaq Composite Index, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average increased during the year by 44%, 24%, and 19%, respectively – average equity market valuations declined from 2008.

 

The Company attracted $87.3 billion in net new client assets during 2009 and total client assets were $1.42 trillion at December 31, 2009, up 25% from the prior year, reflecting the Company’s success in attracting and retaining clients. Client trading activity slowed modestly during 2009 as clients’ daily average trades decreased 4% to 414,800 from 2008.

 

Net revenues decreased by 19% in 2009 from 2008, primarily due to the decreases in asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue. Asset management and administration fees decreased in 2009 primarily due to money market mutual fund fee waivers of $224 million and lower average equity market valuations. There were no money market mutual fund fee waivers in 2008. Net interest revenue decreased as a result of the low interest rate environment, partially offset by higher average balances of interest-earning assets. These decreases were offset by the increase in other revenue. Other revenue in 2009 included a $31 million gain on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt. In addition, other revenue in 2008 included a loss of $29 million on the sale of a corporate debt security held in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. Net revenues were also negatively impacted by net impairment charges of $60 million in 2009 relating to certain residential mortgage-backed securities in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. Net impairment losses on securities in 2008 included an other-than-temporary impairment charge of $44 million related to a corporate debt security held in the Company’s available for sale portfolio.

 

Expenses excluding interest decreased by 7% in 2009 from 2008, primarily due to the decreases in compensation and benefits, professional services, and advertising and market development expenses. The decrease in expenses was partially offset by severance and facilities charges of $101 million relating to the Company’s cost reduction measures and a $16 million FDIC special industry assessment.

 

As a result of the Company’s cost reduction measures and expense discipline, the Company achieved a pre-tax profit margin from continuing operations of 30.4% and return on stockholders’ equity of 17% in 2009. Net revenue per average full-time equivalent employee was $338,000 in 2009, down 12% from 2008 due to lower net revenues, partially offset by the decrease in average full-time equivalent employees.

 

Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. All references to EPS information in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations reflect diluted EPS unless otherwise noted.

 

Business Acquisition

 

On November 9, 2010, the Company completed its acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Windward for $106 million in common stock and $44 million in cash. Windward was an investment advisory firm that managed diversified investment portfolios comprised primarily of ETFs.

 

CURRENT MARKET AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

 

While the equity markets improved from their March 2009 lows, which helped to strengthen the Company’s net revenues in 2010, the interest rate environment remains challenging and may continue to constrain the Company’s net revenues.

 

Short-term interest rates remained at historically low levels in 2010, as the federal funds target rate was unchanged at a range of zero to 0.25%, and the three-month and six-month LIBOR were below year-earlier levels for the majority of the year. To the extent rates remain at these low levels, the Company’s net interest revenue will continue to be constrained. The low rate environment also affects asset management and administration fees. The overall yields on certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds have fallen to levels at or below the management fees the Company earns on those funds. The Company continues to waive a portion of its management fees, which it began to do in the first quarter of 2009, so that the funds may continue providing a positive return to clients. These and other money market mutual funds may continue to find it necessary

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

to replace maturing securities with low yielding securities and the overall yield on such funds may remain below the management fees on those funds. To the extent this occurs, fees may continue to be waived and could increase from the fourth quarter 2010 level, which would negatively affect asset management and administration fees.

 

The Company recorded net impairment charges of $36 million and $60 million related to certain non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities in 2010 and 2009, respectively, due to credit deterioration of the securities’ underlying collateral. Further deterioration in the performance of the underlying loans in the Company’s residential mortgage-backed securities portfolio could result in the recognition of additional impairment charges.

 

The “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act” was signed into law in July 2010. Among other things, the legislation authorizes various assessments and fees and requires the establishment of minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements for insured depository institutions. CSC is continuing to review the impact the legislation, studies and related rule-making will have on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following discussion presents an analysis of the Company’s results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008.

 

Net Revenues

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. Asset management and administration fees and trading revenue decreased, while net interest revenue increased in 2010 as compared to 2009. Asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue decreased in 2009 as compared to 2008.

 

Year Ended December 31,          2010     2009     2008  
     Growth Rate
2009-2010
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
 

Asset management and administration fees

              

Mutual fund service fees:

              

Proprietary funds (Schwab Funds® and Laudus Funds®)

     (37 %)    $ 601                      14   $ 949                      23   $ 1,265                      24

Mutual Fund OneSource®

     36     628        15     461        11     544        11

Other

     13     105        2     93        2     108        2

Investment management and trust fees

     38     377        9     273        7     340        7

Other

     12     111        3     99        2     98        2
                                                        

Asset management and administration fees

     (3 %)      1,822        43     1,875        45     2,355        46
                                                        

Net interest revenue

              

Interest revenue

     21     1,723        41     1,428        34     1,908        37

Interest expense

     9     (199     (5 %)      (183     (4 %)      (226     (4 %) 
                                                        

Net interest revenue

     22     1,524        36     1,245        30     1,682        33
                                                        

Trading revenue

              

Commissions

     (13 %)      770        18     884        21     915        18

Principal transactions

     (46 %)      60        2     112        3     165        3
                                                        

Trading revenue

     (17 %)      830        20     996        24     1,080        21
                                                        

Other

     (23 %)      135        3     175        3     94        2
                                                        

Provision for loan losses

     (29 %)      (27     (1 %)      (38     (1 %)      (17     (1 %) 
                                                        

Net impairment losses on securities

     (40 %)      (36     (1 %)      (60     (1 %)      (44     (1 %) 
                                                        

Total net revenues

     1   $        4,248        100   $        4,193        100   $     5,150        100
                                                        

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Asset Management and Administration Fees

 

Asset management and administration fees include mutual fund service fees and fees for other asset-based financial services provided to individual and institutional clients. The Company earns mutual fund service fees for shareholder services, administration, investment management, and transfer agent services (through July 2009) provided to its proprietary funds, and recordkeeping and shareholder services provided to third-party funds. These fees are based upon the daily balances of client assets invested in the Company’s proprietary funds and third-party funds. The Company also earns asset management fees for advisory and managed account services, which are based on the daily balances of client assets subject to the specific fee for service. The fair values of client assets included in proprietary and third-party mutual funds are based on quoted market prices and other observable market data. Asset management and administration fees may vary with changes in the balances of client assets due to market fluctuations and client activity. For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on asset management and administration fees, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment.”

 

Asset management and administration fees decreased by $53 million, or 3%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to the decrease in mutual fund service fees, partially offset by an increase in investment management and trust fees. Asset management and administration fees decreased by $480 million, or 20%, in 2009 from 2008 due to decreases in mutual fund service fees and investment management and trust fees.

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2009-2010
          2010                 2009                 2008        

Asset management and administration fees before money market mutual fund fee waivers

     7   $        2,255      $        2,099      $        2,355   

Money market mutual fund fee waivers

     93     (433     (224       
                                

Asset management and administration fees

     (3 %)    $ 1,822      $ 1,875      $ 2,355   
                                

 

Mutual fund service fees decreased by $169 million, or 11%, in 2010 from 2009 and by $414 million, or 22%, in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to money market mutual fund fee waivers. Given the low interest rate environment in 2010 and 2009, the overall yields on certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds have fallen to levels at or below the management fees on those funds. As a result, the Company waived a portion of its fees in 2010 and 2009, in order to provide a positive return to clients. There were no money market mutual fund fee waivers in 2008. The decrease in mutual fund service fees in 2010 was partially offset by the effect of higher average balances of client assets invested in the Company’s Mutual Fund OneSource funds as a result of higher average asset valuations and continued asset inflows. The decrease in mutual fund service fees in 2009 was also due to lower average balances of client assets invested in the Company’s Mutual Fund OneSource funds and mutual fund clearing services as a result of lower average equity market valuations.

 

Investment management and trust fees increased by $104 million, or 38%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to higher average balances of client assets participating in advisory and managed account services programs. This increase was partially offset by temporary fees rebates of $63 million offered to qualifying clients that participated in those programs. Investment management and trust fees decreased by $67 million, or 20%, in 2009 from 2008 due to temporary fee rebates relating to the same programs discussed previously.

 

Net Interest Revenue

 

Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on funding sources. Net interest revenue is affected by changes in the volume and mix of these assets and liabilities, as well as by fluctuations in interest rates and portfolio management strategies. The Company is positioned so that the consolidated balance sheet produces an increase in net interest revenue when interest rates rise and, conversely, a decrease in net interest revenue when interest rates fall (i.e., interest-earning assets generally reprice more quickly than interest-bearing liabilities). When interest rates fall, the Company may attempt to mitigate some of this negative impact by extending the maturities of assets in investment portfolios to lock-in asset yields as well as by lowering rates paid to clients on interest-bearing liabilities. Since the Company establishes the rates paid on certain brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients, as well as the rates charged on receivables from brokerage clients, and also controls the composition of its investment securities, it has

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

some ability to manage its net interest spread. However, the spread is influenced by external factors such as the interest rate environment and competition. For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on net interest revenue, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment.”

 

In clearing its clients’ trades, Schwab holds cash balances payable to clients. In most cases, Schwab pays its clients interest on cash balances awaiting investment, and may invest these funds and earn interest revenue. Receivables from brokerage clients consist primarily of margin loans to brokerage clients. Margin loans are loans made by Schwab to clients on a secured basis to purchase securities. Pursuant to SEC regulations, client cash balances that are not used for margin lending are generally segregated into investment accounts that are maintained for the exclusive benefit of clients, which are recorded in cash and investments segregated on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

 

When investing segregated client cash balances, Schwab must adhere to SEC regulations that restrict investments to securities guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, participation certificates, mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association, certificates of deposit issued by U.S. banks and thrifts, and resale agreements collateralized by qualified securities. Additionally, Schwab has established policies for the minimum credit quality and maximum maturity of these investments. Schwab Bank also maintains investment portfolios for liquidity as well as to invest funding from deposits raised in excess of loans to banking clients. Schwab Bank’s securities available for sale include residential mortgage-backed securities, U.S. agency notes, asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, and certificates of deposit. Schwab Bank’s securities held to maturity include residential mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, and corporate debt securities. Schwab Bank lends funds to banking clients primarily in the form of mortgage loans and HELOCs. These loans are largely funded by interest-bearing deposits from banking clients.

 

The Company’s interest-earning assets are financed primarily by brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients. Noninterest-bearing funding sources include noninterest-bearing brokerage client cash balances and proceeds from stock-lending activities, as well as stockholders’ equity.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

The following table presents net interest revenue information corresponding to interest-earning assets and funding sources on the consolidated balance sheet:

 

Year Ended December 31,    2010     2009     2008  
     Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
 

Interest-earning assets:

                        

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 7,269       $ 19         0.26   $ 7,848       $ 33         0.42   $ 5,217       $ 129         2.47

Cash and investments segregated

     19,543         57         0.29     16,291         80         0.49     11,223         280         2.49

Broker-related receivables (1)

     317                 0.08     363         1         0.28     428         8         1.87

Receivables from brokerage clients

     8,981         437         4.87     6,749         351         5.20     10,278         612         5.95

Other securities owned (2)

     74                 0.45     126         1         0.79                       

Securities available for sale (3)

     24,209         486         2.01     18,558         521         2.81     11,772         517         4.39

Securities held to maturity

     10,440         361         3.46     1,915         74         3.86     22         1         5.86

Loans to banking clients

     7,987         275         3.44     6,671         241         3.61     4,831         227         4.70

Loans held for sale

     80         4         5.00     110         5         4.55     66         4         6.06
                                                                              

Total interest-earning assets

     78,900         1,639         2.08     58,631         1,307         2.23     43,837         1,778         4.06
                                                                              

Other interest revenue

        84              121              130      
                                          

Total interest-earning assets

   $ 78,900       $ 1,723                   2.18   $     58,631       $       1,428                   2.44   $     43,837       $       1,908                   4.35
                                                                              

Funding sources:

                        

Deposits from banking clients

   $     44,858       $ 105         0.23   $ 31,249       $ 107         0.34   $ 19,203       $ 104         0.54

Payables to brokerage clients

     22,715         2         0.01     18,002         3         0.02     15,220         55         0.36

Short-term borrowings

                                                   40         1         2.54

Long-term debt

     1,648         92         5.58     1,231         71         5.77     890         59         6.63
                                                                              

Total interest-bearing liabilities

     69,221         199         0.29     50,482         181         0.36     35,353         219         0.62
                                                                              

Noninterest-bearing funding sources

     9,679              8,149              8,484         

Other interest expense

                     2              7      
                                          

Total funding sources

   $ 78,900       $ 199         0.25   $ 58,631       $ 183         0.32   $ 43,837       $ 226         0.51
                                                                              

Net interest revenue

      $       1,524         1.93      $ 1,245         2.12      $ 1,682         3.84
                                                            

 

(1)

Includes receivables from brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations. Interest revenue on broker-related receivables was less than $500,000 in 2010.

(2)

Interest revenue on other securities owned was less than $500,000 in 2010.

(3)

Amounts have been calculated based on amortized cost.

 

Net interest revenue increased in 2010 from 2009 due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets. This resulted from significant growth in the average balance of deposits from banking clients, which in turn funded increases in the average balances of securities held to maturity, securities available for sale, and loans to banking clients. These interest-earning assets are invested at rates above the cost of supporting funding sources. The increase in net interest revenue was partially offset by the low interest rate environment that persisted in 2010, which resulted in the decline in the yields of almost all interest-earning assets compared to 2009.

 

Net interest revenue decreased in 2009 from 2008 due to the low interest rate environment in 2009. As a result, the Company experienced declines in the yields and rates of all interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities compared to 2008, with yields on interest-earning assets declining more than the cost of funding sources as short-term interest rates approached zero. The mix of interest-earning assets also negatively affected net interest revenue – most notably the decrease in the average balance of margin loans resulted in a higher average balance of cash and investments segregated, a lower yielding asset category. The effect of the low interest rate environment and asset mix was partially offset by the growth in average balances. The Company experienced significant growth in deposits from banking clients, which in turn funded increases in the average balances of securities available for sale, loans to banking clients, and cash and cash equivalents.

 

Trading Revenue

 

Trading revenue includes commission and principal transaction revenues. Commission revenue is affected by the number of revenue trades executed and the average revenue earned per revenue trade. Principal transaction revenue is primarily comprised of revenue from client fixed income securities trading activity. Factors that influence principal transaction revenue include the volume of client trades and market price volatility.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Trading revenue decreased by $166 million, or 17%, in 2010 from 2009 and by $84 million, or 8%, in 2009 from 2008 due to lower average revenue per revenue trade resulting from improved online trade pricing for clients and lower daily average revenue trades, as trading volume and market volatility eased from 2008 levels.

 

As shown in the following table, daily average revenue trades decreased 5% in 2010. The decrease was primarily due to lower volumes of equity and principal transaction trades, partially offset by a higher volume of option trades. Average revenue per revenue trade decreased 11% in 2010, primarily due to lower online equity trade commissions, which were implemented in January 2010. Daily average revenue trades decreased 2% in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to lower volumes of principal transaction and mutual fund trades. Average revenue per revenue trade decreased 5% in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to lower average revenue per revenue trade for principal transactions and mutual funds, partially offset by higher average revenue per revenue trade for option securities.

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2009-2010
          2010                  2009                  2008        

Daily average revenue trades (1) (in thousands)

     (5 %)      270.7         285.8         292.6   

Number of trading days

            251.5         251.0         251.5   

Average revenue per revenue trade

     (11 %)    $        12.28       $        13.86       $        14.53   

 

(1)

Includes all client trades that generate trading revenue (i.e., commission revenue or revenue from fixed income securities trading).

 

Other Revenue

 

Other revenue includes gains on the repurchases of long-term debt, realized gains and losses on sales of securities available for sale, gains and losses on sales of loans held for sale, service fees, and software maintenance fees. Other revenue decreased by $40 million, or 23%, in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to a gain of $31 million on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt in 2009. Other revenue increased by $81 million, or 86%, in 2009 compared to 2008 primarily due to the gain on the repurchase of long-term debt in 2009 previously discussed and a realized loss of $29 million on the sale of a corporate debt security in 2008.

 

Provision for Loan Losses

 

The provision for loan losses decreased by $11 million, or 29%, in 2010 from 2009, primarily due to stabilization in the levels of loan delinquencies and nonaccrual loans in 2010 compared to 2009, partially offset by growth in the Company’s residential real estate mortgage and HELOC portfolios. The provision for loan losses increased by $21 million, or 124%, in 2009 from 2008, primarily due to higher loan delinquencies and nonaccrual loans, as well as growth in the Company’s loan portfolio. Charge-offs were $20 million, $13 million, and $4 million in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. For further discussion on the Company’s credit risk and the allowance for loan losses, see “Risk Management – Credit Risk” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 7. Loans to Banking Clients and Related Allowance for Loan Losses.”

 

Net Impairment Losses on Securities

 

Net impairment losses on securities were $36 million and $60 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively, and related to certain non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. These charges resulted from credit deterioration of the securities’ underlying collateral. In 2008, the Company recognized an other-than-temporary impairment charge of $44 million on a corporate debt security issued by Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. (Lehman) as a result of Lehman’s Chapter 11 bankruptcy petition filing in September 2008 and subsequently sold the security in the following month. This security was held in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. For further discussion, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 6. Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity.”

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Expenses Excluding Interest

 

As shown in the table below, expenses excluding interest increased in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to the recognition of class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund and losses recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds. Expenses excluding interest also increased in 2010 due to increases in professional services expense and other expense, partially offset by a decrease in occupancy and equipment expense. Expenses excluding interest decreased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to decreases in compensation and benefits expense, professional services expense, and advertising and market development expense.

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2009-2010
    2010     2009     2008  

Compensation and benefits

     2   $ 1,573      $ 1,544      $ 1,667   

Professional services

     24     341        275        334   

Occupancy and equipment

     (14 %)      272        318        299   

Advertising and market development

     3     196        191        243   

Communications

            207        206        211   

Depreciation and amortization

     (8 %)      146        159        152   

Class action litigation and regulatory reserve

     N/M        320                 

Money market mutual fund charges

     N/M        132                 

Other

     26     282        224        216   
                                

Total expenses excluding interest

     19   $        3,469      $        2,917      $        3,122   
                                

Expenses as a percentage of total net revenues:

        

Total expenses excluding interest

       82     70     61

Advertising and market development

       5     5     5

 

N/M Not meaningful.

 

Compensation and Benefits

 

Compensation and benefits expense includes salaries and wages, incentive compensation, and related employee benefits and taxes. Incentive compensation primarily includes variable compensation and discretionary bonus costs. Variable compensation includes payments to certain individuals based on their sales performance. Discretionary bonus costs are based on the Company’s overall performance as measured by earnings per share, and therefore will fluctuate with this measure. In 2009 and 2008, discretionary bonus costs were based on the achievement of specified performance objectives, including revenue growth and pre-tax profit margin.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Compensation and benefits expense increased by $29 million, or 2%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to an increase in incentive compensation. Compensation and benefits expense decreased by $123 million, or 7%, in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to decreases in salaries and wages expense and incentive compensation. The following table shows a comparison of certain compensation and benefits components and employee data:

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2009-2010
    2010     2009     2008  

Salaries and wages

          $ 931      $ 930      $ 1,020   

Incentive compensation (1)

     9     386        355        402   

Employee benefits and other

     (1 %)      256        259        245   
                                

Total compensation and benefits expense

     2   $        1,573      $        1,544      $        1,667   
                                

Compensation and benefits expense as a percentage of total net revenues:

        

Salaries and wages

       22     22     20

Incentive compensation

       9     8     8

Employee benefits and other

       6     7     4
                          

Total compensation and benefits expense

       37     37     32
                          

Full-time equivalent employees (in thousands) (2)

        

At year end

     3     12.8        12.4        13.4   

Average

     2     12.6        12.4        13.5   

 

(1)

Includes variable compensation, discretionary bonus costs, and stock-based compensation.

(2)

Includes full-time, part-time and temporary employees, and persons employed on a contract basis, and excludes employees of outsourced service providers.

 

Salaries and wages were relatively flat in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to increases in persons employed on a contract basis and full-time employees, offset by severance expense of $58 million in 2009 relating to the Company’s cost reduction measures. Incentive compensation increased in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to higher variable compensation resulting from product sales performance in the Company’s branch offices and higher stock-based compensation relating to the amortization of its stock options and restricted stock units.

 

Salaries and wages decreased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to decreases in full-time employees and persons employed on a contract basis, offset by severance expense of $58 million relating to the Company’s cost reduction measures. Incentive compensation decreased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to lower variable compensation as a result of lower product sales performance in the Company’s branch offices. In addition, incentive compensation in 2008 included long-term incentive plan compensation. The last performance period under the Company’s long-term incentive program ended on December 31, 2008.

 

Expenses Excluding Compensation and Benefits

 

Professional services expense increased in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to increases in fees relating to technology services and enhancements, and investment advisor fees relating to the Company’s managed account service programs. Professional services expense decreased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to a curtailment of certain technology projects.

 

Occupancy and equipment expense decreased in 2010 from 2009 and increased in 2009 from 2008, primarily due to facilities charges of $43 million in 2009 relating to the Company’s cost reduction measures.

 

Advertising and market development expense decreased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to lower media spending relating to the Company’s “Talk to Chuck™” national advertising campaign. Media spending and marketing expense decreased by $39 million and $13 million, respectively, in 2009 from 2008.

 

Depreciation and amortization expense decreased in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to certain assets becoming fully depreciated.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

In 2010, the Company recognized class action litigation and regulatory reserves of $320 million relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund. For further discussion of the Schwab YieldPlus Fund litigation and regulatory matters, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.”

 

In 2010, the Company decided to cover the net remaining losses recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds as a result of their investments in a single structured investment vehicle that defaulted in 2008 and recorded a charge of $132 million.

 

Other expense increased in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to a charge of $30 million in 2010, as the Company ended its sponsorship in its Invest First and WorldPoints Visa credit cards as a result of challenging credit card industry economics. Other expense also increased in 2010 due to an increase in employee travel expenses. Other expense increased in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to a $16 million FDIC special industry assessment and higher FDIC insurance premiums caused by higher deposits from banking clients, partially offset by a decrease in employee travel expenses and insurance recovery of certain costs incurred in 2008.

 

Taxes on Income

 

The Company’s effective income tax rate on income from continuing operations before taxes was 41.7% in 2010, 38.3% in 2009, and 39.3% in 2008. The increase in 2010 from 2009 reflects the impact of non-deductible penalties relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund regulatory settlements. The decrease in 2009 from 2008 was primarily due to lower effective state income tax rates.

 

Segment Information

 

The Company provides financial services to individuals and institutional clients through two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services. The Investor Services segment includes the Company’s retail client offering. The Institutional Services segment provides custodial, trading, and support services to independent investment advisors, as well as retirement plan services, plan administrator services, equity compensation plan services, and mutual fund clearing services. In addition, the Institutional Services segment supports the availability of Schwab proprietary mutual funds and collective trust funds on third-party platforms. Banking revenues and expenses are allocated to the Company’s two segments based on which segment services the client. The Company evaluates the performance of its segments on a pre-tax basis, excluding items such as impairment charges on non-financial assets, discontinued operations, extraordinary items, and significant restructuring and other charges. Segment assets and liabilities are not disclosed because the balances are not used for evaluating segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources to segments.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Financial information for the Company’s reportable segments is presented in the following tables:

 

    Investor Services     Institutional Services  

Year Ended December 31,

  Growth Rate
2010-2009
    2010     2009     2008     Growth Rate
2010-2009
    2010     2009     2008  

Net Revenues:

               

Asset management and administration fees

    1   $ 976      $ 968      $ 1,293        (7 %)    $ 846      $ 907      $ 1,062   

Net interest revenue

    23            1,297               1,058               1,398        21     227        187        283   

Trading revenue

    (18 %)      557        679        725        (14 %)      273        317        355   

Other

    (25 %)      70        93        24        (21 %)      65        82        60   

Provision for loan losses

    (32 %)      (23     (34     (15            (4     (4     (2

Net impairment losses on securities

    (41 %)      (32     (54     (40     (33 %)      (4     (6     (4
                                                               

Total net revenues

    5     2,845        2,710        3,385        (5 %)             1,403               1,483               1,754   
                                                               

Expenses Excluding Interest

    8     2,065        1,906        2,107        3     960        929        1,001   
                                                               

Income from continuing operations before taxes on income

    (3 %)    $ 780      $ 804      $ 1,278        (20 %)    $ 443      $ 554      $ 753   
                                                               
    Unallocated     Total  

Year Ended December 31,

  Growth Rate
2010-2009
    2010     2009     2008     Growth Rate
2010-2009
    2010     2009     2008  

Net Revenues:

               

Asset management and administration fees

         $      $      $        (3 %)    $ 1,822      $ 1,875      $ 2,355   

Net interest revenue

                         1        22     1,524        1,245        1,682   

Trading revenue

                                (17 %)      830        996        1,080   

Other

                         10        (23 %)      135        175        94   

Provision for loan losses

                                (29 %)      (27     (38     (17

Net impairment losses on securities

                                (40 %)      (36     (60     (44
                                                               

Total net revenues

                         11        1     4,248        4,193        5,150   
                                                               

Expenses Excluding Interest

    N/M        444        82        14        19     3,469        2,917        3,122   
                                                               

Income from continuing operations before taxes on income

    N/M      $ (444   $ (82     (3     (39 %)    $ 779      $ 1,276      $ 2,028   
                                                               

Taxes on income

            (34 %)      (325     (489     (798
                                       

Income from continuing operations

            (42 %)      454        787        1,230   
                                       

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

                                 (18

Net Income

            (42 %)    $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   
                                       

 

N/M Not meaningful.

 

Investor Services

 

Net revenues increased by $135 million, or 5%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to an increase in net interest revenue and lower net impairment losses on securities, partially offset by decreases in trading revenue and other revenue. Net interest revenue increased due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by a decrease in the average yield earned. Trading revenue decreased due to lower average revenue per revenue trade resulting from improved online trade pricing for clients, which was implemented in January 2010, and slightly lower daily average revenue trades in 2010. Other revenue was lower in comparison to 2009 due to a gain on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt in

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

2009. While the low interest rate environment caused additional money market mutual fund fee waivers from 2009, asset management and administration fees were relatively flat due to higher average asset valuations and continued asset inflows. Expenses excluding interest increased by $159 million, or 8%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to increases in compensation and benefits, professional services, and other expenses. Other expense includes a charge relating to the Company’s termination of its sponsorship in its Invest First and WorldPoints Visa credit cards in 2010 as a result of challenging credit card economics.

 

Net revenues decreased by $675 million, or 20%, in 2009 from 2008 due to decreases in asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue, partially offset by an increase in other revenue. Asset management and administration fees decreased primarily due to lower average asset valuations and money market mutual fund fee waivers. Net interest revenue decreased as a result of the low interest rate environment, partially offset by higher average balances of interest-earning assets. The increase in other revenue was primarily due to the recognition of a gain on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt. In addition, other revenue in 2008 included a loss on the sale of a corporate debt security held in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. Net revenues were also negatively impacted by net impairment charges relating to certain residential mortgage-backed securities in the Company’s available for sale portfolio. Expenses excluding interest decreased by $201 million, or 10%, in 2009 from 2008, primarily due to lower compensation and benefits, professional services, and advertising and market development expenses.

 

Institutional Services

 

Net revenues decreased by $80 million, or 5%, in 2010 from 2009 due to decreases in asset management and administration fees, trading revenue, and other revenue, offset by an increase in net interest revenue. Asset management and administration fees decreased primarily due to money market mutual fund fee waivers, partially offset by the effect of higher average asset valuations and continued asset inflows. Additionally, in August 2010 management transferred client assets associated with the Schwab Advisor Network to the Investor Services segment and started recording the related asset management and administration fee revenue to that segment. Trading revenue decreased due to lower average revenue per revenue trade resulting from improved online trade pricing for clients, which was implemented in January 2010, and slightly lower daily average revenue trades in 2010. Other revenue was lower in comparison to 2009 due to a gain on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt in 2009. Net interest revenue increased due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by a decrease in the average yield earned. Expenses excluding interest increased by $31 million, or 3%, in 2010 from 2009 primarily due to an increase in compensation and benefits expense.

 

Net revenues decreased by $271 million, or 15%, in 2009 from 2008 due to decreases in asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue, partially offset by an increase in other revenue. Asset management and administration fees decreased primarily due to lower average asset valuations and money market mutual fund fee waivers. Net interest revenue decreased as a result of the low interest rate environment, partially offset by higher average balances of interest-earning assets. Trading revenue decreased due to lower daily average revenue trades and lower average revenue per revenue trade. Net impairment losses on securities increased due to credit deterioration of certain mortgage-backed securities’ underlying collateral. The increase in other revenue was primarily due to the recognition of a gain on the repurchase of a portion of the Company’s long-term debt. Expenses excluding interest decreased by $72 million, or 7%, in 2009 from 2008 primarily due to lower compensation and benefits and professional services expenses, partially offset by an increase in other expense.

 

Unallocated

 

Expenses excluding interest in 2010 primarily include the recognition of certain significant charges. The Company recognized class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund and a charge relating to its decision to cover the net remaining losses recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds as a result of their investments in a single structured investment vehicle that defaulted in 2008. Expenses excluding interest in 2009 include facilities and severance charges relating to the Company’s cost reduction measures.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Discontinued Operations

 

In July 2007, the Company sold all of the outstanding common stock of U.S. Trust. In connection with the determination of the final income tax gain on the sale of U.S. Trust, the Company recorded additional tax expense of $18 million in 2008, which is included in loss from discontinued operations in the Company’s consolidated statements of income.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

CSC conducts substantially all of its business through its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company’s capital structure is designed to provide each subsidiary with capital and liquidity to meet its operational needs and regulatory requirements.

 

CSC is a savings and loan holding company and Schwab Bank, CSC’s depository institution, is a federal savings bank. CSC and Schwab Bank are both currently subject to supervision and regulation by the Office of Thrift Supervision.

 

Liquidity

 

CSC

 

As a savings and loan holding company, CSC is not subject to specific statutory capital requirements. However, CSC is required to maintain capital that is sufficient to support the holding company and its subsidiaries’ business activities, and the risks inherent in those activities. To manage capital adequacy, CSC currently utilizes a target Tier 1 Leverage Ratio, as defined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, of at least 6%. At December 31, 2010, CSC’s Tier 1 Leverage Ratio was 6.5%.

 

CSC’s liquidity needs are generally met through cash generated by its subsidiaries, as well as cash provided by external financing. CSC has a universal automatic shelf registration statement (Shelf Registration Statement) on file with the SEC which enables CSC to issue debt, equity and other securities. CSC maintains excess liquidity in the form of overnight cash deposits and short-term investments to cover daily funding needs and to support growth in the Company’s business. Generally, CSC does not hold liquidity at its subsidiaries in excess of amounts deemed sufficient to support the subsidiaries’ operations, including any regulatory capital requirements. Schwab and Schwab Bank are subject to regulatory requirements that may restrict them from certain transactions with CSC. Management believes that funds generated by the operations of CSC’s subsidiaries will continue to be the primary funding source in meeting CSC’s liquidity needs, providing adequate liquidity to meet Schwab Bank’s capital guidelines, and maintaining Schwab’s net capital.

 

CSC has liquidity needs that arise from its Senior Medium-Term Notes, Series A (Medium-Term Notes), Junior Subordinated Notes, and Senior Notes, as well as from the funding of cash dividends, acquisitions, and other investments. The Medium-Term Notes, of which $250 million were outstanding at December 31, 2010, mature in 2017 and have a fixed interest rate of 6.375% with interest payable semi-annually. The Medium-Term Notes are rated A2 by Moody’s Investors Service (Moody’s), A by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (Standard & Poor’s), and A by Fitch Ratings, Ltd. (Fitch). At December 31, 2010, $202 million of Junior Subordinated Notes, which mature in 2067, were outstanding and have a fixed interest rate of 7.50% until 2017 and a floating rate thereafter. The Junior Subordinated Notes are not rated, however the trust preferred securities related to these notes are rated Baa1 by Moody’s, BBB+ by Standard & Poor’s, and BBB+ by Fitch.

 

In the third quarter of 2010, the Company issued $700 million of Senior Notes under the Shelf Registration Statement. At December 31, 2010, total Senior Notes outstanding were $1.5 billion, with maturities ranging from 2014 to 2020 and fixed interest rates ranging from 4.45% to 4.950% with interest payable semi-annually. The Senior Notes are rated A2 by Moody’s, A by Standard & Poor’s, and A by Fitch.

 

In January 2010, the Company completed an equity offering of 29,670,300 shares of its common stock under the Shelf Registration Statement. Net proceeds received from the offering were $543 million and were used to support the Company’s balance sheet growth.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

CSC has authorization from its Board of Directors to issue unsecured commercial paper notes (Commercial Paper Notes) not to exceed $1.5 billion. Management has set a current limit for the commercial paper program of $800 million. The maturities of the Commercial Paper Notes may vary, but are not to exceed 270 days from the date of issue. The commercial paper is not redeemable prior to maturity and cannot be voluntarily prepaid. The proceeds of the commercial paper program are to be used for general corporate purposes. There were no borrowings of Commercial Paper Notes during 2010. CSC’s ratings for these short-term borrowings are P1 by Moody’s, A1 by Standard & Poor’s, and F1 by Fitch.

 

CSC maintains an $800 million committed, unsecured credit facility with a group of twelve banks, which is scheduled to expire in June 2011. This facility replaced a similar facility that expired in June 2010. These facilities were unused in 2010. The funds under this facility are available for general corporate purposes, including repayment of the Commercial Paper Notes discussed above. The financial covenants under this facility require Schwab to maintain a minimum net capital ratio, as defined, Schwab Bank to be well capitalized, as defined, and CSC to maintain a minimum level of stockholders’ equity. At December 31, 2010, the minimum level of stockholders’ equity required under this facility was $4.4 billion. Management believes that these restrictions will not have a material effect on CSC’s ability to meet foreseeable dividend or funding requirements.

 

CSC also has direct access to $704 million of the $829 million uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines discussed below, that are primarily utilized by Schwab to manage short-term liquidity. These lines were not used in 2010.

 

In addition, Schwab provides CSC with a $1.0 billion credit facility maturing in December 2011. No funds were drawn under this facility at December 31, 2010.

 

Schwab

 

Schwab is subject to regulatory requirements that are intended to ensure the general financial soundness and liquidity of broker-dealers. These regulations prohibit Schwab from repaying subordinated borrowings from CSC, paying cash dividends, or making unsecured advances or loans to its parent company or employees if such payment would result in net capital of less than 5% of aggregate debit balances or less than 120% of its minimum dollar requirement of $250,000. At December 31, 2010, Schwab’s net capital was $1.2 billion (9% of aggregate debit balances), which was $930 million in excess of its minimum required net capital and $553 million in excess of 5% of aggregate debit balances.

 

Most of Schwab’s assets are readily convertible to cash, consisting primarily of short-term (i.e., less than 150 days) investment-grade, interest-earning investments (the majority of which are segregated for the exclusive benefit of clients pursuant to regulatory requirements), receivables from brokerage clients, and receivables from brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations. Client margin loans are demand loan obligations secured by readily marketable securities. Receivables from and payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations primarily represent current open transactions, which usually settle, or can be closed out, within a few business days.

 

Liquidity needs relating to client trading and margin borrowing activities are met primarily through cash balances in brokerage client accounts, which were $29.9 billion and $25.3 billion at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Management believes that brokerage client cash balances and operating earnings will continue to be the primary sources of liquidity for Schwab in the future.

 

Schwab has a finance lease obligation related to an office building and land under a 20-year lease. The remaining finance lease obligation of $106 million at December 31, 2010, is being reduced by a portion of the lease payments over the remaining lease term of 14 years.

 

To manage short-term liquidity, Schwab maintains uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines with a group of seven banks totaling $829 million at December 31, 2010. The need for short-term borrowings arises primarily from timing differences between cash flow requirements, scheduled liquidation of interest-earnings investments, and movements of cash to meet

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

regulatory cash segregation requirements. Schwab used such borrowings for 25 days in 2010, with average daily amounts borrowed of $28 million. There were no borrowings outstanding under these lines at December 31, 2010.

 

To partially satisfy the margin requirement of client option transactions with the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC), Schwab has unsecured standby letter of credit agreements (LOCs) with seven banks in favor of the OCC aggregating $445 million at December 31, 2010. In connection with its securities lending activities, Schwab is required to provide collateral to certain brokerage clients. Schwab satisfies the collateral requirements by arranging LOCs, in favor of these brokerage clients, which are issued by multiple banks. At December 31, 2010, the aggregate face amount of these LOCs totaled $37 million. There were no funds drawn under any of these LOCs during 2010.

 

To manage Schwab’s regulatory capital requirement, CSC provides Schwab with a $1.4 billion subordinated revolving credit facility which is scheduled to expire in March 2012. The amount outstanding under this facility at December 31, 2010, was $220 million. Borrowings under this subordinated lending arrangement qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab.

 

In addition, CSC provides Schwab with a $1.5 billion credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in December 2011. Borrowings under this facility do not qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab. At December 31, 2010, $45 million was outstanding under this facility, which was subsequently repaid on January 3, 2011.

 

Schwab Bank

 

Schwab Bank is required to maintain minimum capital levels as specified in federal banking laws and regulations. Failure to meet the minimum levels will result in certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary, actions by the regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Schwab Bank. Based on its regulatory capital ratios at December 31, 2010, Schwab Bank is considered well capitalized. Schwab Bank’s regulatory capital and ratios at December 31, 2010, are as follows:

 

      Actual     Minimum Capital
Requirement
    Minimum to be
Well Capitalized
 
       Amount            Ratio           Amount            Ratio           Amount            Ratio      

Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital

   $  4,157         23.7   $ 702         4.0   $ 1,053         6.0

Total Risk-Based Capital

   $ 4,209         24.0   $  1,404         8.0   $  1,755         10.0

Tier 1 Core Capital

   $ 4,157         7.6   $ 2,195         4.0   $ 2,744         5.0

Tangible Equity

   $ 4,157         7.6   $ 1,098         2.0     N/A      

 

N/A Not applicable.

 

Beginning in 2010, in light of the evolving regulatory environment and capitalization trends observed across the banking industry, management established a target Tier 1 Core Capital Ratio for Schwab Bank of at least 7.5%. Schwab Bank’s current liquidity needs are generally met through deposits from banking clients and equity capital.

 

The excess cash held in certain Schwab brokerage client accounts is swept into deposit accounts at Schwab Bank. At December 31, 2010, these balances totaled $31.0 billion.

 

Schwab Bank has access to traditional funding sources such as deposits, federal funds purchased, and repurchase agreements. Additionally, Schwab Bank has access to short-term funding through the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) discount window. Amounts available under the FRB discount window are dependent on the fair value of certain of Schwab Bank’s securities available for sale and securities held to maturity that are pledged as collateral. At December 31, 2010, $1.1 billion was available under this arrangement. There were no funds drawn under this arrangement during 2010.

 

Schwab Bank maintains a credit facility with the Federal Home Loan Bank System. Amounts available under this facility are dependent on the amount of Schwab Bank’s residential real estate mortgages and HELOCs that are pledged as collateral. At December 31, 2010, $4.1 billion was available under this facility. There were no funds drawn under this facility during 2010.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

CSC provides Schwab Bank with a $100 million short-term credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in December 2011. Borrowings under this facility do not qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab Bank. There were no funds drawn under this facility during 2010.

 

Capital Resources

 

The Company monitors both the relative composition and absolute level of its capital structure. Management is focused on limiting the Company’s use of capital and currently targets a long-term debt to total financial capital ratio not to exceed 30%. The Company’s total financial capital (long-term debt plus stockholders’ equity) at December 31, 2010, was $8.2 billion, up $1.6 billion, or 25%, from December 31, 2009.

 

At December 31, 2010, the Company had long-term debt of $2.0 billion, or 24% of total financial capital, that bears interest at a weighted-average rate of 5.24%. At December 31, 2009, the Company had long-term debt of $1.5 billion, or 23% of total financial capital. In the third quarter of 2010, the Company issued $700 million of additional Senior Notes that mature in 2020 and have a fixed interest rate of 4.45%. The Company repaid $205 million of long-term debt in 2010, which included the maturity of $200 million of Medium-Term Notes. In 2009, the Company issued $750 million of Senior Notes that mature in 2014 and have a fixed interest rate of 4.950%. The Company repaid $13 million of long-term debt in 2009. In addition, the Company repurchased $98 million of trust preferred securities related to its Junior Subordinated Notes for a cash payment of $67 million in 2009, which resulted in a gain of $31 million.

 

The Company’s cash position (reported as cash and cash equivalents on its consolidated balance sheet) and cash flows are affected by changes in brokerage client cash balances and the associated amounts required to be segregated under regulatory guidelines. Timing differences between cash and investments actually segregated on a given date and the amount required to be segregated for that date may arise in the ordinary course of business and are addressed by the Company in accordance with applicable regulations. Other factors which affect the Company’s cash position and cash flows include investment activity in securities, levels of capital expenditures, acquisition and divestiture activity, banking client deposit activity, brokerage and banking client loan activity, financing activity in long-term debt, payments of dividends, and repurchases and issuances of CSC’s common stock. The combination of these factors can cause significant fluctuations in the cash position during specific time periods.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

The Company’s capital expenditures were $127 million in 2010 and $139 million in 2009. Capital expenditures as a percentage of net revenues were 3% in 2010 and 2009. Capital expenditures in 2010 were primarily for software and equipment relating to the Company’s information technology systems, leasehold improvements, and capitalized costs for developing internal-use software. Capital expenditures in 2009 were primarily for leasehold improvements, software and equipment relating to the Company’s information technology systems, and building improvements.

 

Management currently anticipates that 2011 capital expenditures will be approximately 35% higher than 2010 spending primarily due to increased spending on software and equipment relating to the Company’s information systems and furniture and equipment. As has been the case in recent years, the Company may adjust its capital expenditures periodically as business conditions change. Management believes that funds generated by its operations will continue to be the primary funding source of its capital expenditures.

 

Equity Offering

 

On January 26, 2010, the Company completed the sale of 29,670,300 shares of its common stock, $.01 par value, at a public offering price of $19.00 per share. Net proceeds received from the offering were $543 million and were used to support the Company’s balance sheet growth, including expansion of its deposit base and migration of certain client balances from money market funds into deposit accounts at Schwab Bank.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Dividends

 

CSC paid common stock cash dividends of $288 million and $279 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively. Since the initial dividend in 1989, CSC has paid 87 consecutive quarterly dividends and has increased the quarterly dividend rate 19 times, including a 20% increase in the third quarter of 2008. Since 1989, dividends have increased by a 26% compounded annual growth rate, excluding the special cash dividend of $1.00 per common share in 2007. CSC paid common stock dividends of $.24, $.24, and $.22 per share in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. While the payment and amount of dividends are at the discretion of the Board of Directors, subject to certain regulatory and other restrictions, the Company currently targets its cash dividend at approximately 20% to 30% of net income.

 

Share Repurchases

 

There were no repurchases of CSC’s common stock in 2010 or 2009. As of December 31, 2010, CSC had remaining authority from the Board of Directors to repurchase up to $596 million of its common stock.

 

Business Acquisition

 

On November 9, 2010, the Company completed its acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Windward for $106 million in common stock and $44 million in cash.

 

Off-Balance-Sheet Arrangements

 

The Company enters into various off-balance-sheet arrangements in the ordinary course of business, primarily to meet the needs of its clients. These arrangements include firm commitments to extend credit. Additionally, the Company enters into guarantees and other similar arrangements as part of transactions in the ordinary course of business. For information on each of these arrangements, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.”

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The Company’s principal contractual obligations as of December 31, 2010, are shown in the following table. Management believes that funds generated by its continuing operations, as well as cash provided by external financing, will continue to be the primary funding sources in meeting these obligations. Excluded from this table are liabilities recorded on the consolidated balance sheet that are generally short-term in nature (e.g., payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations) or without contractual payment terms (e.g., deposits from banking clients, payables to brokerage clients, and deferred compensation).

 

      Less than
1 Year
     1-3
  Years  
     3-5
Years
     More than
5 Years
     Total  

Credit-related financial instruments (1)

   $ 1,241       $      405       $  1,195       $ 3,246       $  6,087   

Long-term debt (2)

     99         199         893         1,371         2,562   

Leases (3)

     111         139         101         195         546   

Purchase obligations (4)

     132         80         43                 255   

Regulatory reserve (5)

     18                                 18   
                                            

Total

   $ 1,601       $      823       $  2,232       $ 4,812       $  9,468   
                                            

 

(1)

Represents Schwab Bank’s firm commitments to extend credit to banking clients.

(2)

Includes estimated future interest payments through 2020 for Senior Notes and through 2017 for Medium-Term Notes and Junior Subordinated Notes. The Junior Subordinated Notes have a fixed interest rate of 7.50% until 2017 and a floating rate from 2018 to 2067. Based on the current interest rate of 7.50% and no repayments of principal, the estimated future interest payments on the Junior Subordinated Notes in 2018 to 2067 would be $15 million per year. Amounts exclude maturities under a finance lease obligation and unamortized discounts and premiums.

(3)

Represents minimum rental commitments, net of sublease commitments, and includes facilities under the Company’s past restructuring initiatives and rental commitments under a finance lease obligation.

(4)

Consists of purchase obligations for services such as advertising and marketing, telecommunications, professional services, and hardware- and software-related agreements. Includes purchase obligations, which can be canceled by the Company without penalty.

(5)

Represents a future payment for a regulatory settlement relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund.

 

RISK MANAGEMENT

 

Overview

 

The Company’s business activities expose it to a variety of risks including technology, operations, credit, market, liquidity, legal, and reputational risk. Identification and management of these risks are essential to the success and financial soundness of the Company.

 

Senior management takes an active role in the Company’s risk management process and has developed policies and procedures under which specific business and control units are responsible for identifying, measuring, and controlling various risks. Oversight of risk management has been delegated to the Global Risk Committee, which is comprised of senior managers of major business and control functions. The Global Risk Committee is responsible for reviewing and monitoring the Company’s risk exposures and leading the continued development of the Company’s risk management policies and practices.

 

Functional risk sub-committees focusing on specific areas of risk report into the Global Risk Committee. These sub-committees include the:

 

   

Corporate Asset-Liability Management and Pricing Committee, which focuses on the Company’s liquidity, capital resources, interest rate risk, and investments;

 

   

Credit and Market Risk Oversight Committee, which focuses on the credit exposures resulting from client activity (e.g., margin lending activities and loans to banking clients), the investing activities of certain of the Company’s proprietary funds, corporate credit activities (e.g., counterparty and corporate investing activities), and market risk resulting from the Company taking positions in certain securities to facilitate client trading activity;

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

   

Information Security and Privacy Steering Committee, which oversees information security and privacy programs and policies;

 

   

Investment Management and ERISA Risk Committee, which oversees activities in which the Company and its principals operate in an investment advisory capacity or as an ERISA fiduciary;

 

   

Investment Products Review Board, which provides senior level oversight of investment products and services made available to clients; and

 

   

Operations Risk Committee, which focuses on risks relating to potential inadequate or failed internal processes or systems and from external events and relationships (e.g., vendors and business partners).

 

The Global Risk Committee reports regularly to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors (Audit Committee), which reviews major risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such exposures.

 

The Company’s Disclosure Committee is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the Company’s (a) disclosure controls and procedures and (b) internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal quarter. The Disclosure Committee reports on this evaluation to the CEO and CFO prior to their certification required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.

 

The Company’s compliance, finance, internal audit, legal, and risk and credit management departments assist management and the various risk committees in evaluating, testing, and monitoring the Company’s risk management.

 

Risk is inherent in the Company’s business. Consequently, despite the Company’s efforts to identify areas of risk and implement risk management policies and procedures, there can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer unexpected losses due to operating or other risks. The following discussion highlights the Company’s policies and procedures for identification, assessment, and management of the principal areas of risk in its operations.

 

Technology and Operating Risk

 

Technology and operating risk is the potential for loss due to deficiencies in control processes or technology systems that constrain the Company’s ability to gather, process and communicate information and process client transactions efficiently and securely, without interruptions. The Company’s operations are highly dependent on the integrity of its technology systems and the Company’s success depends, in part, on its ability to make timely enhancements and additions to its technology in anticipation of evolving client needs. To the extent the Company experiences system interruptions, errors or downtime (which could result from a variety of causes, including changes in client use patterns, technological failure, changes to its systems, linkages with third-party systems, and power failures), the Company’s business and operations could be significantly negatively impacted. To minimize business interruptions, Schwab has two data centers intended, in part, to further improve the recovery of business processing in the event of an emergency. The Company is committed to an ongoing process of upgrading, enhancing, and testing its technology systems. This effort is focused on meeting client needs, meeting market and regulatory changes, and deploying standardized technology platforms.

 

Technology and operating risk also includes the risk of human error, employee misconduct, external fraud, computer viruses, distributed denial of service attacks, terrorist attacks, and natural disaster. Employee misconduct could include fraud and misappropriation of client or Company assets, improper use or disclosure of confidential client or Company information, and unauthorized activities, such as transactions exceeding acceptable risks or authorized limits. External fraud includes misappropriation of client or Company assets by third parties, including through unauthorized access to Company systems and data and client accounts. The frequency and sophistication of such fraud attempts continue to increase.

 

The Company has specific policies and procedures to identify and manage operational risk, and uses periodic risk self-assessments and internal audit reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of these internal controls. The Company maintains backup and recovery functions, including facilities for backup and communications, and conducts periodic testing of disaster recovery plans. The Company also maintains policies and procedures and technology to protect against fraud and unauthorized access to systems and data.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Despite the Company’s risk management efforts, it is not always possible to deter or prevent technological or operational failure, or fraud or other misconduct, and the precautions taken by the Company may not be effective in all cases. The Company may be subject to litigation, losses, and regulatory actions in such cases, and may be required to expend significant additional resources to remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures.

 

The Company also faces technology and operating risk when it employs the services of various external vendors, including domestic and international outsourcing of certain technology, processing, and support functions. The Company manages its exposure to external vendor risk through contractual provisions, control standards, and ongoing monitoring of vendor performance. The Company maintains policies and procedures regarding the standard of care expected with Company data, whether the data is internal company information, employee information, or non-public client information. The Company clearly defines for employees, contractors, and vendors the Company’s expected standards of care for confidential data. Regular training is provided by the Company in regard to data security.

 

The Company is actively engaged in the research and development of new technologies, services, and products. The Company endeavors to protect its research and development efforts, and its brands, through the use of copyrights, patents, trade secrets, and contracts.

 

Credit Risk

 

Credit risk is the potential for loss due to a borrower, counterparty, or issuer failing to perform its contractual obligations. The Company’s direct exposure to credit risk mainly results from margin lending activities, securities lending activities, mortgage lending activities, its role as a counterparty in financial contracts and investing activities, and indirectly from the investing activities of certain of the proprietary funds that the Company sponsors. To manage the risks of such losses, the Company has established policies and procedures which include: establishing and reviewing credit limits, monitoring of credit limits and quality of counterparties, and adjusting margin requirements for certain securities. Most of the Company’s credit extensions are supported by collateral arrangements. Collateral arrangements relating to margin loans, securities lending agreements, and resale agreements include provisions that require additional collateral in the event that market fluctuations result in declines in the value of collateral received.

 

The Company’s credit risk exposure related to loans to banking clients is actively managed through individual and portfolio reviews performed by management. Management regularly reviews asset quality including concentrations, delinquencies, nonperforming loans, losses, and recoveries. All are factors in the determination of an appropriate allowance for loan losses, which is reviewed quarterly by senior management. The Company’s mortgage loan portfolios primarily include first lien residential mortgage loans (First Mortgage portfolio) of $4.7 billion and home equity lines of credit (HELOC portfolio) of $3.5 billion at December 31, 2010.

 

The Company’s First Mortgage portfolio underwriting requirements are generally consistent with the underwriting requirements in the secondary market for loan portfolios. The Company’s guidelines include maximum loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, cash out limits, and minimum Fair Issac & Company (FICO) credit scores. The specific guidelines are dependent on the individual characteristics of a loan (for example, whether the property is a primary or secondary residence, whether the loan is for investment property, whether the loan is for an initial purchase of a home or refinance of an existing home, and whether the loan is conforming or jumbo). These credit underwriting standards have limited the exposure to the types of loans that experienced high foreclosures and loss rates elsewhere in the industry during 2010 and 2009. There have been no significant changes to the LTV ratio or FICO credit score guidelines related to the Company’s First Mortgage or HELOC portfolios during 2010. At December 31, 2010, the weighted-average originated LTV ratios were 60% and 59% for the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, respectively. The computation of the origination LTV ratio for a HELOC includes any first lien mortgage outstanding on the same property at the time of origination. At December 31, 2010, 21% of HELOCs ($742 million of the HELOC portfolio) were in a first lien position. The weighted-average originated FICO credit scores were 764 and 768 for the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, respectively, at December 31, 2010.

 

The Company does not offer loans that allow for negative amortization and does not originate or purchase subprime loans (generally defined as extensions of credit to borrowers with a FICO credit score of less than 620 at origination), unless the

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

borrower has compensating credit factors. At December 31, 2010, approximately 2% of both the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios consisted of loans to borrowers with FICO credit scores of less than 620.

 

The following table presents certain of the Company’s loan quality metrics as a percentage of total outstanding loans:

 

December 31,

   2010     2009  

Loan delinquencies (1)

     0.96     0.87

Nonaccrual loans

     0.58     0.46

Allowance for loan losses

     0.60     0.61

 

(1)

Loan delinquencies are defined as loans that are 30 days or more past due.

 

The Company has exposure to credit risk associated with its securities available for sale and securities held to maturity portfolios, whose fair values totaled $24.0 billion and $17.8 billion at December 31, 2010, respectively. These portfolios include U.S. agency and non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities, U.S. agency notes, corporate debt securities, asset-backed securities, and certificates of deposit. U.S. agency residential mortgage-backed securities do not have explicit credit ratings, however management considers these to be of the highest credit quality and rating given the guarantee of principal and interest by the U.S. agencies. Included in non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities are securities collateralized by loans that are considered to be “Prime” (defined by the Company as loans to borrowers with a FICO credit score of 620 or higher at origination), and “Alt-A” (defined by the Company as Prime loans with reduced documentation at origination).

 

The table below presents the credit ratings for U.S. agency and non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities available for sale and securities held to maturity, including Prime and Alt-A residential mortgage-backed securities, by year of origination. In some instances securities have divergent ratings from Moody’s, Fitch, or Standard & Poor’s. In these instances, the Company has used the lowest rating as of December 31, 2010, for purposes of presenting the table below. Residential mortgage-backed securities, particularly Alt-A securities, experienced continued deteriorating credit characteristics, including increased payment delinquencies, in 2010. For a discussion of the impact of current market conditions on residential mortgage-backed securities, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment.”

 

     AAA     AA to A     BBB     BB or Lower     Total  
     Amortized
Cost
    Net
Unrealized
Gain (Loss)
    Amortized
Cost
     Net
Unrealized
Loss
    Amortized
Cost
     Net
Unrealized
Loss
    Amortized
Cost
    Net
Unrealized
Loss
    Amortized
Cost
    Net
Unrealized
Gain (Loss)
 

U.S. agency residential mortgage-backed securities:

                      

2005

   $ 410      $ 6      $       $      $       $      $      $      $ 410      $ 6   

2006

     396        2                                                    396        2   

2007

     372        8                                                    372        8   

2008

     2,723        86                                                    2,723        86   

2009

     6,914        182                                                    6,914        182   

2010

     18,786        7                                                    18,786        7   
                                                                                  

Total

     29,601        291                                                    29,601        291   
                                                                                  

Non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities:

                      

2003

     52        (3     6                                             58        (3

2004

     76        (3     65         (7     12         (5                   153        (15

2005

     12               68         (1     29         (1     550        (88     659        (90

2006

     7                                             514        (97     521        (97

2007

     49        1                                      261        (27     310        (26
                                                                                  

Total

     196        (5     139         (8     41         (6     1,325        (212     1,701        (231
                                                                                  

Total residential mortgage-backed securities

   $ 29,797      $ 286      $ 139       $ (8   $ 41       $ (6   $ 1,325      $ (212   $ 31,302      $ 60   
                                                                                  

% of Total residential mortgage-backed securities

     95                           5       100  
                                                                                  

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

At December 31, 2010, all of the corporate debt securities and non-mortgage asset-backed securities were rated investment grade (defined as a rating equivalent to a Moody’s rating of “Baa” or higher, or a Standard & Poor’s rating of “BBB-” or higher).

 

Schwab performs clearing services for all securities transactions in its client accounts. Schwab has exposure to credit risk due to its obligation to settle transactions with clearing corporations, mutual funds, and other financial institutions even if Schwab’s client or a counterparty fails to meet its obligations to Schwab.

 

Concentration Risk

 

The Company has exposure to concentration risk when holding large positions in financial instruments collateralized by assets with similar economic characteristics or in securities of a single issuer or industry.

 

The fair value of the Company’s investments in residential mortgage-backed securities totaled $31.4 billion at December 31, 2010. Of these, $29.9 billion were U.S. agency securities and $1.5 billion were non-agency securities. The U.S. agency securities are included in securities available for sale and securities held to maturity and the non-agency securities are included in securities available for sale. Included in non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities are securities collateralized by Alt-A loans. At December 31, 2010, the amortized cost and fair value of Alt-A mortgage-backed securities were $489 million and $359 million, respectively.

 

The Company’s investments in corporate debt securities and commercial paper totaled $4.6 billion at December 31, 2010, with the majority issued by institutions in the financial services industry. These securities are included in securities available for sale, securities held to maturity, cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes, cash and cash equivalents, and other securities owned in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. At December 31, 2010, the Company held $1.9 billion of corporate debt securities issued by financial institutions and guaranteed under the FDIC Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program.

 

The Company’s loans to banking clients include $4.7 billion of adjustable rate first lien residential real estate mortgage loans at December 31, 2010. The Company’s adjustable rate mortgages have initial fixed interest rates for three to ten years and interest rates that adjust annually thereafter. Approximately 65% of these mortgages consisted of loans with interest-only payment terms. The interest rates on approximately 70% of these interest-only loans are not scheduled to reset for three or more years. The Company’s interest-only loans do not include interest terms described as temporary introductory rates below current market rates. At December 31, 2010, 42% of the residential real estate mortgages and 49% of the HELOC balances were secured by properties which are located in California.

 

The Company also has exposure to concentration risk from its margin and securities lending activities collateralized by securities of a single issuer or industry.

 

The Company has indirect exposure to U.S. Government and agency securities held as collateral to secure its resale agreements. The Company’s primary credit exposure on these resale transactions is with its counterparty. The Company would have exposure to the U.S. Government and agency securities only in the event of the counterparty’s default on the resale agreements. U.S. Government and agency securities held as collateral for resale agreements totaled $13.0 billion at December 31, 2010.

 

Market Risk

 

Market risk is the potential for changes in revenue or the value of financial instruments held by the Company as a result of fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices or market conditions. For discussion of the Company’s market risk, see “Item 7A – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Fiduciary Risk

 

Fiduciary risk is the potential for financial or reputational loss through breach of fiduciary duties to a client. Fiduciary activities include, but are not limited to, individual and institutional trust, investment management, custody, and cash and securities processing. The Company attempts to manage this risk by establishing procedures to ensure that obligations to clients are discharged faithfully and in compliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements. Business units have the primary responsibility for adherence to the procedures applicable to their business. Guidance and control are provided through the creation, approval, and ongoing review of applicable policies by business units and various risk committees.

 

Legal and Regulatory Risk

 

The Company faces significant legal and compliance risk in its business, and the volume of litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial services firms and the amount of damages claimed have been increasing. Among other things, these risks relate to the suitability of client investments, conflicts of interest, disclosure obligations and performance expectations for Company products and services, supervision of employees, and the adequacy of the Company’s controls. Claims against the Company may increase due to a variety of factors, such as if clients suffer losses during a period of deteriorating equity market conditions, as the Company increases the level of advice it provides to clients, and as the Company enhances the services it provides to IAs. In addition, the Company and its affiliates are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and foreign regulatory authorities, and SROs, and such regulation is becoming increasingly extensive and complex.

 

The Company attempts to manage legal and compliance risk through policies and procedures reasonably designed to avoid litigation claims and prevent or detect violations of applicable legal and regulatory requirements. These procedures address issues such as business conduct and ethics, sales and trading practices, marketing and communications, extension of credit, client funds and securities, books and records, anti-money laundering, client privacy, employment policies, and contracts management. Despite the Company’s efforts to maintain an effective compliance program and internal controls, legal breaches and rule violations could result in reputational harm, significant losses and disciplinary sanctions, including limitations on the Company’s business activities.

 

FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

 

The Company uses fair value measurements to record certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value, and to determine fair value disclosures. All of these assets were measured at fair value using quoted prices or market-based information and accordingly were classified as Level 1 or Level 2 measurements in accordance with the fair value hierarchy described in fair value measurement accounting guidance. Liabilities recorded at fair value were not material at December 31, 2010 or 2009. See “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 16. Fair Values of Assets and Liabilities” for more information on the Company’s assets and liabilities recorded at fair value.

 

When available, the Company uses quoted prices in active markets to measure the fair value of assets. When quoted prices do not exist, the Company uses prices obtained from independent third-party pricing services to measure the fair value of investment assets. The Company validates prices received from pricing services using various methods, including comparison to prices received from additional pricing services, comparison to available quoted market prices, internal valuation models, and review of other relevant market data. The Company does not adjust the prices received from independent third-party pricing services unless such prices are inconsistent with the definition of fair value and result in a material difference in the recorded amounts. At December 31, 2010 and 2009, the Company did not adjust prices received from independent third-party pricing services.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

 

The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. While the majority of the Company’s revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities are not based on estimates, there are certain accounting principles that require management to make estimates regarding matters that are uncertain and susceptible to change where such change may result in a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial position and reported financial results. These critical accounting estimates are described below. Management regularly reviews the estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements for reasonableness and adequacy.

 

Other-than-Temporary Impairment of Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity: Management evaluates whether securities available for sale and securities held to maturity are other-than-temporarily impaired (OTTI) on a quarterly basis. Debt securities with unrealized losses are considered OTTI if the Company intends to sell the security or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell such security prior to any anticipated recovery. If management determines that a security is OTTI under these circumstances, the impairment recognized in earnings is measured as the entire difference between the amortized cost and the then-current fair value.

 

A security is also OTTI if management does not expect to recover the amortized cost of the security. In this circumstance, management utilizes cash flow models to estimate the expected future cash flow from the securities and to estimate the credit loss. The impairment recognized in earnings is measured by the difference between the present value of expected cash flows and the amortized cost of the security. Expected cash flows are discounted using the security’s effective interest rate.

 

The evaluation of whether the Company expects to recover the amortized cost of a security is inherently judgmental. The evaluation includes the assessment of several bond performance indicators including: the portion of the underlying loans that are delinquent (30 days, 60 days, 90+ days), in bankruptcy, in foreclosure or converted to real estate owned; the actual amount of loss incurred on the underlying loans in which the property has been foreclosed and sold; the amount of credit support provided by the structure of the security available to absorb credit losses on the underlying loans; the current credit ratings issued by either Standard & Poor’s, Fitch Ratings, or Moody’s; the current price and magnitude of the unrealized loss; and whether the Company has received all scheduled principal and interest payments. Management uses cash flow models to further assess the likelihood of other-than-temporary impairment for the Company’s non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities. To develop the cash flow models, the Company uses forecasted loss severity, prepayment speeds (i.e. the rate at which the principal on underlying loans are paid down), and default rates over the securities’ expected remaining maturities.

 

Valuation of Goodwill: The Company tests goodwill for impairment at least annually, or whenever indications of impairment exist. An impairment exists when the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, resulting in an impairment charge for this excess.

 

The Company has elected April 1st as its annual goodwill impairment testing date. In testing for a potential impairment of goodwill on April 1, 2010, management estimated the fair value of each of the Company’s reporting units (generally defined as the Company’s businesses for which financial information is available and reviewed regularly by management) and compared this value to the carrying value of the reporting unit. The estimated fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value, and therefore management concluded that no amount of goodwill was impaired. The estimated fair value of the reporting units was established using a discounted cash flow model that includes significant assumptions about the future operating results and cash flows of each reporting unit. Adverse changes in the Company’s planned business operations such as unanticipated competition, a loss of key personnel, the sale of a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit, or other unforeseen developments could result in an impairment of the Company’s recorded goodwill.

 

Allowance for Loan Losses: The adequacy of the allowance is reviewed quarterly by management, taking into consideration current economic conditions, the existing loan portfolio composition, past loss experience, and risks inherent in the portfolio.

 

The process to establish an allowance for loan losses utilizes loan-level statistical models that estimate prepayments, defaults, and probable losses for the loan portfolios based on predicted behavior of individual loans within the portfolios. The

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

methodology considers the effects of borrower behavior and a variety of factors including, but not limited to, interest rates, housing price movements as measured by a housing price index, economic conditions, estimated defaults and foreclosures measured by historical and expected delinquencies, changes in prepayment speeds, loan-to-value ratios, past loss experience, estimates of future loss severities, borrower credit risk measured by FICO scores, and the adequacy of collateral. The methodology also evaluates concentrations in the loan portfolios including loan products, year of origination, geographical distribution of collateral, and the portion of borrowers who have other client relationships with the Company.

 

The more significant variables considered include a measure of delinquency roll rates, loss severity, housing prices, and interest rates. Delinquency roll rates (i.e., the rates at which loans transition through delinquency stages and ultimately result in a loss) are estimated from the Company’s historical loss experience adjusted for current trends and market information. Loss severity estimates are based on the Company’s historical loss experience and market trends. Housing price trends are derived from historical home price indices and econometric forecasts of future home values. Factors affecting the home price index include: housing inventory, unemployment, interest rates, and inflation expectations. Interest rate projections are based on the current term structure of interest rates and historical volatilities to project various possible future interest rate paths. This quarterly analysis results in a loss factor that is applied to the outstanding balances to determine the allowance for loan loss for each loan segment.

 

Legal Reserve: Reserves for legal and regulatory claims and proceedings reflect an estimate of probable losses for each matter, after considering, among other factors, the progress of the case, prior experience and the experience of others in similar cases, available defenses, insurance coverage and indemnification, and the opinions and views of legal counsel. In many cases, including most class action lawsuits, it is not possible to determine whether a loss will be incurred, or to estimate the range of that loss, until the matter is close to resolution, in which case no accrual is made until that time. Reserves are adjusted as more information becomes available or when an event occurs requiring a change. Significant judgment is required in making these estimates, and the actual cost of resolving a matter may ultimately differ materially from the amount reserved.

 

The Company’s management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee. Additionally, management has reviewed with the Audit Committee the Company’s significant estimates discussed in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “aim,” “target,” “could,” and other similar expressions. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements.

 

These forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s beliefs, objectives, and expectations as of the date hereof, are necessarily estimates based on the best judgment of the Company’s senior management. These statements relate to, among other things:

 

   

the Company’s ability to pursue its business strategy (see “Part I – Item 1. – Business – Business Strategy and Competitive Environment”);

 

   

the impact of legal proceedings and regulatory matters (see “Part I – Item 3. – Legal Proceedings” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements –14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities – Legal Contingencies”);

 

   

the impact of current market conditions on the Company’s results of operations (see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 6. Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity”);

 

   

sources of liquidity, capital, and level of dividends (see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Contractual Obligations”);

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

   

target capital ratios (see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 23. Regulatory Requirements”);

 

   

capital expenditures (see “Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Resources”);

 

   

the impact of changes in management’s estimates on the Company’s results of operations (see “Critical Accounting Estimates”);

 

   

the impact of changes in the likelihood of indemnification and guarantee payment obligations on the Company’s results of operations (see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities”); and

 

   

the impact on the Company’s results of operations of recording stock option expense (see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 19. Employee Incentive, Deferred Compensation, and Retirement Plans”).

 

Achievement of the expressed beliefs, objectives and expectations described in these statements is subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expressed beliefs, objectives, and expectations. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or, in the case of documents incorporated by reference, as of the date of those documents.

 

Important factors that may cause actual results to differ include, but are not limited to:

 

   

changes in general economic and financial market conditions;

 

   

changes in revenues and profit margin due to changes in interest rates;

 

   

the Company’s ability to attract and retain clients and grow client assets and relationships;

 

   

the Company’s ability to develop and launch new products, services and capabilities in a timely and successful manner;

 

   

adverse developments in litigation or regulatory matters;

 

   

the extent of any charges associated with litigation and regulatory matters;

 

   

amounts recovered on insurance policies;

 

   

fluctuations in client asset values due to changes in equity valuations;

 

   

the performance of securities available for sale;

 

   

the level of interest rates, including yields available on money market mutual fund eligible investments;

 

   

the amount of loans to the Company’s brokerage and banking clients;

 

   

the adverse impact of financial reform legislation and related regulations;

 

   

the level of the Company’s stock repurchase activity;

 

   

the level of brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients;

 

   

the availability and terms of external financing;

 

   

the timing and impact of changes in the Company’s level of investments in technology and furniture and equipment; and

 

   

potential breaches of contractual terms for which the Company has indemnification and guarantee obligations.

 

Certain of these factors, as well as general risk factors affecting the Company, are discussed in greater detail in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Item 1A – Risk Factors.”

 

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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

Market risk is the potential for changes in revenue or the value of financial instruments held by the Company as a result of fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices or market conditions.

 

For the Company’s market risk related to interest rates, a sensitivity analysis, referred to as a net interest revenue simulation model, is shown below. The Company is exposed to interest rate risk primarily from changes in market interest rates on its interest-earning assets relative to changes in the costs of its funding sources that finance these assets.

 

Net interest revenue is affected by various factors, such as the distribution and composition of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, the spread between yields earned on interest-earning assets and rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, which may re-price at different times or by different amounts, and the spread between short and long-term interest rates. Interest-earning assets include residential real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities. These assets are sensitive to changes in interest rates and to changes to prepayment levels, which tend to increase in a declining rate environment.

 

To mitigate the risk of loss, the Company has established policies and procedures which include setting guidelines on the amount of net interest revenue at risk, and monitoring the net interest margin and average maturity of its interest-earning assets and funding sources. To remain within these guidelines, the Company manages the maturity, repricing, and cash flow characteristics of the investment portfolios. Because the Company establishes the rates paid on certain brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients, the rates charged on margin loans, and controls the composition of its investment securities, it has some ability to manage its net interest spread, depending on competitive factors and market conditions.

 

The Company is also subject to market risk as a result of fluctuations in equity prices. The Company’s direct holdings of equity securities and its associated exposure to equity prices are not material. The Company is indirectly exposed to equity market fluctuations in connection with securities collateralizing margin loans to brokerage customers, and customer securities loaned out as part of the Company’s securities lending activities. Equity market valuations may also affect the level of brokerage client trading activity, margin borrowing, and overall client engagement with the Company. Additionally, the Company earns mutual fund service fees and asset management fees based upon daily balances of certain client assets. Fluctuations in these client asset balances caused by changes in equity valuations directly impact the amount of fee revenue earned by the Company.

 

Financial instruments held by the Company are also subject to liquidity risk – that is, the risk that valuations will be negatively affected by changes in demand and the underlying market for a financial instrument. Recent conditions in the credit markets have significantly reduced market liquidity in a wide range of financial instruments, including the types of instruments held by the Company, and fair value can differ significantly from the value implied by the credit quality and actual performance of the instrument’s underlying cash flows.

 

Financial instruments held by the Company are also subject to valuation risk as a result of changes in valuations of the underlying collateral, such as housing prices in the case of residential real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities.

 

For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and securities available for sale, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Current Market and Regulatory Environment”.

 

The Company’s market risk related to financial instruments held for trading and forward sale and interest rate lock commitments related to its loans held for sale portfolio is not material.

 

Net Interest Revenue Simulation

 

The Company uses net interest revenue simulation modeling techniques to evaluate and manage the effect of changing interest rates. The simulation model (the model) includes all interest-sensitive assets and liabilities. Key variables in the model include the repricing of financial instruments, prepayment and reinvestment assumptions, and product pricing assumptions. The Company uses constant balances and market rates in the model assumptions in order to minimize the number of variables and to better isolate risks. The simulations involve assumptions that are inherently uncertain and, as a result, cannot precisely

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

estimate net interest revenue or precisely predict the impact of changes in interest rates on net interest revenue. Actual results may differ from simulated results due to balance growth or decline and the timing, magnitude, and frequency of interest rate changes, as well as changes in market conditions and management strategies, including changes in asset and liability mix.

 

As represented by the simulations presented below, the Company is positioned so that the consolidated balance sheet produces an increase in net interest revenue when interest rates rise and, conversely, a decrease in net interest revenue when interest rates fall (i.e., interest-earning assets generally reprice more quickly than interest-bearing liabilities).

 

The simulations in the following table assume that the asset and liability structure of the consolidated balance sheet would not be changed as a result of the simulated changes in interest rates. As the Company actively manages its consolidated balance sheet and interest rate exposure, in all likelihood the Company would take steps to manage any additional interest rate exposure that could result from changes in the interest rate environment. The following table shows the results of a gradual 100 basis point increase or decrease in market interest rates relative to the Company’s current market rates forecast on simulated net interest revenue over the next 12 months beginning December 31, 2010 and 2009.

 

December 31,

   2010     2009  

Increase of 100 basis points

     13.5     16.8

Decrease of 100 basis points

     (4.8 %)      (2.9 %) 

 

The sensitivities shown in the simulation reflect the fact that short-term interest rates in 2010 remained at historically low levels, including the federal funds target rate, which was unchanged at a range of zero to 0.25%. The current low interest rate environment limits the extent to which the Company can reduce interest expense paid on funding sources in a declining interest rate scenario. A decline in interest rates could therefore negatively impact the yield on the Company’s investment portfolio to a greater degree than any offsetting reduction in interest expense, further compressing net interest margin. Any increases in short-term interest rates result in a greater impact as yields on interest-earning assets are expected to rise faster than the cost of funding sources.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Consolidated Statements of Income

     46   

Consolidated Balance Sheets

     47   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

     48   

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

     49   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     50   
  Note 1.   Introduction and Basis of Presentation      50   
  Note 2.   Summary of Significant Accounting Policies      50   
  Note 3.   Business Acquisition      54   
  Note 4.   Receivables from Brokerage Clients      54   
  Note 5.   Other Securities Owned      55   
  Note 6.   Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity      55   
  Note 7.   Loans to Banking Clients and Related Allowance for Loan Losses      59   
  Note 8.   Equipment, Office Facilities, and Property      62   
  Note 9.   Other Assets      63   
  Note 10.   Deposits from Banking Clients      63   
  Note 11.   Payables to Brokers, Dealers, and Clearing Organizations      63   
  Note 12.   Payables to Brokerage Clients      63   
  Note 13.   Borrowings      64   
  Note 14.   Commitments and Contingent Liabilities      66   
  Note 15.   Financial Instruments Subject to Off-Balance Sheet Risk, Credit Risk, or Market Risk      69   
  Note 16.   Fair Values of Assets and Liabilities      71   
  Note 17.   Equity Offering      74   
  Note 18   Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)      75   
  Note 19.   Employee Incentive, Deferred Compensation, and Retirement Plans      76   
  Note 20.   Money Market Mutual Fund Charges      78   
  Note 21.   Taxes on Income      78   
  Note 22.   Earnings Per Share      80   
  Note 23.   Regulatory Requirements      81   
  Note 24.   Segment Information      82   
  Note 25.   Discontinued Operations      83   
  Note 26.   The Charles Schwab Corporation – Parent Company Only Financial Statements      84   
  Note 27.   Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)      86   

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     87   

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

     88   

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Consolidated Statements of Income

 

(In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2010     2009     2008  

Net Revenues

      

Asset management and administration fees

   $     1,822      $     1,875      $     2,355   

Interest revenue

     1,723        1,428        1,908   

Interest expense

     (199     (183     (226
                        

Net interest revenue

     1,524        1,245        1,682   

Trading revenue

     830        996        1,080   

Other

     135        175        94   

Provision for loan losses

     (27     (38     (17

Net impairment losses on securities (1) 

     (36     (60     (44
                        

Total net revenues

     4,248        4,193        5,150   
                        

Expenses Excluding Interest

      

Compensation and benefits

     1,573        1,544        1,667   

Professional services

     341        275        334   

Occupancy and equipment

     272        318        299   

Advertising and market development

     196        191        243   

Communications

     207        206        211   

Depreciation and amortization

     146        159        152   

Class action litigation and regulatory reserve

     320                 

Money market mutual fund charges

     132                 

Other

     282        224        216   
                        

Total expenses excluding interest

     3,469        2,917        3,122   
                        

Income from continuing operations before taxes on income

     779        1,276        2,028   

Taxes on income

     (325     (489     (798
                        

Income from continuing operations

     454        787        1,230   

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

                   (18
                        

Net Income

   $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   
                        

Weighted-Average Common Shares Outstanding — Diluted

     1,194        1,160        1,157   
                        

Earnings Per Share — Basic

      

Income from continuing operations

   $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.07   

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

   $      $      $ (.01

Net income

   $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06   

Earnings Per Share — Diluted

      

Income from continuing operations

   $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06   

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

   $      $      $ (.01

Net income

   $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.05   
                        

 

(1)

Net impairment losses on securities include total other-than-temporary impairment losses of $41 million, $278 million, and $44 million, net of $5 million, $218 million, and $0 million recognized in other comprehensive income in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

(In Millions, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)

 

December 31,

   2010     2009  

Assets

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 4,931      $ 8,241   

Cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes (including resale agreements of $12,697 and $8,346 at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively)

     22,749        18,373   

Receivables from brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations

     415        560   

Receivables from brokerage clients — net

     11,235        8,627   

Other securities owned — at fair value

     337        916   

Securities available for sale

     23,993        22,120   

Securities held to maturity (fair value — $17,848 and $6,880 at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively)

     17,762        6,839   

Loans to banking clients — net

     8,725        7,348   

Loans held for sale

     185        104   

Equipment, office facilities, and property — net

     624        641   

Goodwill

     631        528   

Other assets

     981        1,134   
                

Total assets

   $ 92,568      $ 75,431   
                

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

    

Deposits from banking clients

   $ 50,590      $ 38,820   

Payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations

     1,389        2,373   

Payables to brokerage clients

     30,861        26,246   

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

     1,496        1,407   

Long-term debt

     2,006        1,512   
                

Total liabilities

     86,342        70,358   
                

Stockholders’ equity:

    

Preferred stock — 9,940,000 shares authorized; $.01 par value per share; none issued

              

Common stock — 3 billion shares authorized; $.01 par value per share; 1,428,604,522 shares and 1,392,091,544 shares issued at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively

     14        14   

Additional paid-in capital

     3,034        2,298   

Retained earnings

     7,409        7,243   

Treasury stock, at cost — 226,222,313 shares and 229,983,936 shares at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively

     (4,247     (4,291

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

     16        (191
                

Total stockholders’ equity

     6,226        5,073   
                

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

   $     92,568      $     75,431   
                

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

(In Millions)

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2010     2009     2008  

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

      

Net income

   $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash (used for) provided by operating activities:

      

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

                   18   

Provision for loan losses

     27        38        17   

Net impairment losses on securities

     36        60        44   

Stock-based compensation

     87        75        69   

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation

     (3     (8     (50

Depreciation and amortization

     146        159        152   

(Benefit) provision for deferred income taxes

     (51     16        97   

Other

     35        (42     53   

Originations of loans held for sale

     (2,015     (2,746     (1,526

Proceeds from sales of loans held for sale

     1,943        2,695        1,522   

Net change in:

      

Cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes

     (4,376     (3,688     (5,882

Receivables from brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations

     148        202        (32

Receivables from brokerage clients

     (2,612     (1,503     5,171   

Other securities owned

     581        (290     48   

Other assets

     133        (253     51   

Payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations

     283        56        (822

Payables to brokerage clients

  <